Reliable estimation of geotechnical parameters is often based on reconstruction of a complete loading process of subsoil on a specimen in laboratory tests. Unfortunately laboratory equipment available in many laboratories is sometimes limited to just a triaxial apparatus – the use of which generates diffi culties whenever a non-axisymmetric problem is analysed. The author suggests two simple operations that may be done to improve the quality of simulation in triaxial tests. The fi rst one is based on the use of triaxial extension along the segments of the stress path p’-q-θ for which the Lode’s angle values are positive. The second one consists in a mod-ifi cation of the equivalent stress value in such a way that the current stress level in the specimen complies with results of FEM analysis.
Abstract This paper deals with the application of the Radial Basis Function (RBF) networks for the induction motor fault detection. The rotor faults are analysed and fault symptoms are described. Next the main stages of the design methodology of the RBF-based neural detectors are described. These networks are trained and tested using measurement data of the stator current (MCSA). The efficiency of developed RBF-NN detectors is evaluated. Furthermore, influence of neural networks complexity and parameters of the RBF activation function on the quality of data classification is shown. The presented neural detectors are tested with measurement data obtained in the laboratory setup containing the converter-fed induction motor (IM) and changeable rotors with a different degree of damages
The technology of recycling with foamed bitumen is a new technology of road rehabilitation. Due to the climatic conditions in the Central European countries, road pavement structure should be moisture and frost resistant. Because of its specific production conditions, this is especially important for pavements rehabilitation with the cold recycling technology. Determining the physical and mechanical properties, as well as moisture and frost resistance, depends on binder and filler contents. They are the key elements before its use for road building. The tests presented here have been performed on mineral recycled base mixes with foamed bitumen. The material from the existing layers was used. The content of bitumen binder amounted to 2.0%, 2.5%, 3.0% and 3.5%, while that of cement to 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%, 2.5%. The results were subject to the optimization process. This allowed to state that with the use of 2.5% foamed bitumen and 2.0% of cement, the base had the required properties, as well as the moisture and frost resistance.
The paper deals with the application of the feed-forward and cascade-forward neural networks to mechanical state variable estimation of the drive system with elastic coupling. The learning procedure of neural estimators is described and the influence of the input vector size and neural network structure to the accuracy of state variable estimation is investigated. The quality of state estimation by neural estimators of different types is tested and compared. The simple optimisation procedure is proposed. Optimised neural estimators of the torsional torque and the load machine speed are tested in the open-loop and closed-loop control structure of the drive system with elastic joint, with additional feedbacks from the shaft torque and the difference between the motor and the load speeds. It is shown that torsional vibrations of the two-mass system are damped effectively using the closed-loop control structure with additional feedbacks obtained from the developed neural estimators. The simulation results are confirmed by laboratory experiments.
This article presents experimental studies on drying kinetics and quality effects of red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) after convective drying with a preliminary osmotic pretreatment. The effects of the osmotic agent (NaCl) concentration and the osmotic bath time on the product colour and nutrient content preservation, the water activity, and rehydration ability after drying were analysed. Osmotic dehydration curves and Solid Gain (SG), Water Loss (WL), Weight Reduction (WR) were determined. It was proved that drying of beetroot with osmotic pretreatment contributes to shorter drying time, smaller water activity, higher retention of betanin, better colour preservation, and a greater degree of water resorption.
This article presents a quality analysis of convectively dried fruits and vegetables with preliminary osmotic dehydration. Tests were carried out on banana fruit and red beetroot samples. Hypertonic solutions of fructose for the banana and those of sucrose for the red beetroot were used, each one at three different concentrations. After osmotic dewatering treatment conducted at different time intervals and after osmotic dehydration the samples were dried convectively until an equilibrium with the surroundings was attained. Osmotic dehydration and convective drying curves were determined. The values of Solids Gain (SG), Water Loss (WL) and Weight Reduction (WR) were measured and changes in the samples’ colour and shape after convective drying with and without osmotic pretreatment were assessed.
Characteristics of the microstructure of corrosion-resistant cast 24Cr-5Ni-2.5Mo duplex steel after introduction of 0.98, 1.67 and 4.3% Si were described. Based on the test results it has been found that silicon addition introduced to the corrosion-resistant cast two-phase duplex steel significantly reduces austenite content in the alloy matrix. Increasing silicon content in the test alloy to 4.3% has resulted, in addition to the elimination of austenite, also in the precipitation of Si-containing intermetallic phases at the grain boundaries and inside the grains. The precipitates were characterized by varying content of Cr and Mo, indicating the presence in the structure of more than one type of the brittle phase characteristic for this group of materials. The simulation using Thermo-Calc software has confirmed the presence of ferrite in all tested alloys. In the material containing 4.3% Si, the Cr and Si enriched precipitates, such as G phase and Cr3Si were additionally observed to occur.
This study characterizes the bronze jewellery recovered from the Lusatian culture urn-field in Mała Kępa (Chełmno land, Poland). Among many common ornaments (e.g. necklaces, rings, pins) the ones giving evidence of a steppe-styled inspiration (nail earrings) were also identified. With the dendritic microstructures revealed, the nail earrings prove the implementing of a lost-wax casting method, whereas some of the castings were further subjected to metalworking. The elemental composition indicates the application of two main types of bronze alloys: Cu-Sn and Cu-Sn-Pb. It has been established that the Lusatian metalworkers were familiar with re-melting the scrap bronze and made themselves capable of roasting the sulphide-rich ores. The collection from Mała Kępa has been described in terms of its structure and composition. The investigations were made by means of the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (ED-XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with an energy dispersive X - ray analysis system (EDS) and optical microscopy (OM). In order to fingerprint an alloy profile of the castings with a special emphasis on the nail earrings, the data-set (ED-XRF, EDS) was statistically evaluated using multidimensional analyses (FA, DA).
The paper presents research results of multilayer systems composed of alternate Cu/Ni layers. The layers thickness obtained by the galvanic treatment was determined by using the transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction method in the grazing incidence diffraction geometry. The surface morphology was observed using scanning electron microscope with EDS microanalysis. Observation of the surface topography of systems using the atomic force microscope was also carried out.
A novel herbicidal controlled release formulation composed of (2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid (2,4-D) chemically bonded to biodegradable (R,S)-3-hydroxybutyric acid oligomers was investigated. The synthesis of (R,S)-3-hydroxy butyric acid oligomers was carried out via the ring opening polymerization of β-butyrolactone initiated by 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic potassium salt in the presence of complexing agents. The formed oligomers were characterized by size exclusion chromatography, proton magnetic resonance and electrospray mass spectrometry in order to fi nd out their molar mass distribution and molecular structures. An assessment of biological effectiveness of the obtained herbicidal formulation was carried out in the greenhouse vs. Sinapis alba var. Nakielska. A promotion of the controlled release formulation with decreased water solubility and with low vapor pressure of the active ingredient, instead of traditional formulations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid may help to ensure a greater safety for workers and reduce the risk of dissemination of the active ingredient in the soil profi le.
This preliminary study characterizes the bronze metalworking on a defensive settlement of the Lusatian culture in former Kamieniec (Chełmno land, Poland) as it is reflected through casting workshop recovered during recent excavations. Among ready products, the ones giving evidence of local metallurgy (e.g. casting moulds and main runners) were also identified. With the shrinkage cavities and dendritic microstructures revealed, the artifacts prove the implementing a casting method by the Lusatian culture metalworkers. The elemental composition indicates application of two main types of bronzes: Cu-Sn and Cu-Pb. Aside these main alloying additions, some natural impurities such as silver, arsenic, antimony and nickel were found which may be attributed to the origin of the ore and casting technology. The collection from Kamieniec was described in terms of its structure and composition. The investigations were made by means of the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (ED-XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with an energy dispersive Xray analysis system (EDS) and optical microscopy (OM). In order to fingerprint either local or non-local profile of the alloys, the ED-XRF data-set was statistically evaluated using a factor analysis (FA).