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Abstract

I n t r o d u c t i o n: Interactions between oral microbiota and systemic diseases have been suggested. We aimed to examine the composition of oral microbiota with reference to antioxidative defense and its correlation with clinical state in Crohn’s disease (CD) in comparison to ulcerative colitis (UC). Ma t e r i a l s a n d Me t h o d s: Smears were taken from the buccal and tongue mucosa of patients with CD, UC and controls, and cultured with classical microbiology methods. Bacterial colonies were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) with a time-of-flight analyzer (TOF). Blood morphology and C-reactive protein (CRP) were analyzed in the hospital laboratory. Antioxidative defense potential (FRAP) was determined using spectrophotometry in saliva and serum. R e s u l t s: Oral microbiota in CD patients were characterized by lower diversity in terms of the isolated bacteria species compared to UC and this correlated with reduced FRAP in the oral cavity and intensified systemic infl ammation. Oral microbiota composition in CD did not depend on the applied treatment. In CD patients, a negative correlation was observed between the FRAP value in saliva and serum and the CRP value in serum. Individual differences in the composition of oral microbiota suggest that different bacteria species may be involved in the induction of oxidative stress associated with a weakening of antioxidative defense in the oral cavity, manifested by ongoing systemic inflammation. C o n c l u s i o n s: Analysis of both the state of the microbiota and antioxidative defense of the oral cavity, as well as their referencing to systemic inflammation may potentially prove helpful in routine diagnostic applications and in aiding a better understanding of CD and UC pathogenesis associated with oral microbiota.
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Abstract

Oxidative stress (OxS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Crohn’s disease (CD). The aim of this study was to examine whether nonenzymatic antioxidants are associated with active CD, by using the FRAP and GSH assay in plasma. Additionally, we measured bilirubin and albumin levels as two individual components of the plasma antioxidant system. A total of 55 patients with established CD, 30 with active CD and 25 with inactive disease, and 25 healthy individuals were prospectively enrolled in this study. We evaluated CD activity index, BMI and blood morphology, platelet count, serum CRP level, and bochemical parameters of OxS: ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), reduced glutathione (GSH) in plasma and bilirubin and albumin levels in serum. Plasma FRAP and GSH concentrations were decreased in both CD groups compared to controls and negatively correlated with CDAI values (FRAP: r = –0.572, p = 0.003; GSH: r = –0.761, p = 0.001), CRP and platelet count. Bilirubin and albumin levels were lower in the serum of active CD patients than inactive CD patients and controls and negatively correlated with the CD activity index (r = –0328, p = 0.036, r = –0.518, p = 0.002) and CRP (r = –0.433, p = 0.002). The decreased FRAP and GSH levels in plasma and bilirubin and albumin levels in serum of patients with active CD compared to inactive CD and controls underlines the importance of OxS in the pathophysiology and activity of CD.
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