Controlling low-temperature drying facilities which utilise nonprepared air is quite difficult, due to very large variability of ventilation air parameters - both in daily and seasonal cycles. The paper defines the concept of cumulative drying potential of ventilation air and presents experimental evidence that there is a relation between this parameter and condition of the dried matter (sewage sludge). Knowledge on current dry mass content in the dried matter (sewage sludge) provides new possibilities for controlling such systems. Experimental data analysed in the paper was collected in early 2012 during operation of a test solar drying facility in a sewage treatment plant in Błonie near Warsaw, Poland.
The paper proposes a procedure which enables to determine selected geometric and operating parameters for twin-fluid liquid-to-air atomisers with internal mixing. The presented approach assumes that in order to ensure proper operation of an atomiser it is necessary to design its structure and flow parameters in such a way so that the flow inside the mixing chamber has a dispersive character. In order to calculate a required exhaust cross-section for the analysed atomiser, conditions within the exhaust plane: pressure, density and outflow velocity were estimated. In order to determine diameter and number of orifices supplying the liquid to the mixing chamber of the investigated atomiser type, a multi-parameter analysis based on numerical fluid mechanics was performed. The final part of the paper presents selected results obtained from experimental stand measurements made on an atomiser designed according to the presented procedure.
The paper presents key assumptions of the mathematical model which describes heat and mass transfer phenomena in a solar sewage drying process, as well as techniques used for solving this model with the Fluent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Special attention was paid to implementation of boundary conditions on the sludge surface, which is a physical boundary between the gaseous phase - air, and solid phase - dried matter. Those conditions allow to model heat and mass transfer between the media during first and second drying stages. Selection of the computational geometry is also discussed - it is a fragment of the entire drying facility. Selected modelling results are presented in the final part of the paper.
One of the important parameters describing pneumatic liquid atomisation is the air to liquid mass ratio (ALR). Along with the atomiser design and properties of the liquid it has extremely important influence on parameters of atomised liquid such as: mean droplet diameter, jet range and angle. Knowledge about real characteristics of an atomiser in this respect is necessary to correctly choose its operating parameters in industrial applications. The paper presents results of experimental research of two-fluid atomisers with internal mixing built according to custom design. Investigated atomizers were designed for spraying a urea aqueous solution inside the power boiler combustion chamber. They are an important element of SNCR (selective non-catalytic reduction) installation which is used to reduce nitrogen oxides in a flue gas boiler. Obtained results were used by authors in further research, among others to determine the boundary conditions in the SNCR installation modeling. The research included determining mean droplet diameter as a function of ALR. It has been based on the immersion liquid method and on the use of specialised instrumentation for determining distribution of droplet diameters in a spray – Spraytec by Malvern. Results obtained with both methods were later compared. The measurements were performed at a laboratory stand located at the Institute of Heat Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology. The stand enables extensive investigation of the water atomisation process.
Therapeutic and surgical applications of focused ultrasound require monitoring of local temperature rises induced inside tissues. From an economic and practical point of view ultrasonic imaging techniques seem to be the most suitable for the temperature control. This paper presents an implementation of the ultrasonic echoes displacement estimation technique for monitoring of local temperature rise in tissue during its heating by focused ultrasound The results of the estimation were compared to the temperature measured with thermocouple. The obtained results enable to evaluate the temperature fields induced in tissues by pulsed focused ultrasonic beams using non-invasive imaging ultrasound technique
Distribution of the exhaust gas temperature within the furnace of a grate boiler greatly depends on its operating parameters such as output. It has a considerably different character than temperature distributions in other types of boilers (with pulverised or fluidised bed), as it varies considerably across the chamber. Results presented in this paper have been obtained through research of a grate-fired hot water boiler with a nominal rating of some 30 MW. Measurements have been taken by introducing temperature sensors into prearranged openings placed in the boiler side walls. Investigation has been carried out for different output levels. Tests involved thermocouples in ceramic coating and aspirated thermocouples. The latter were used to eliminate influence of radiative heat transfer on measured results. Values obtained with both methods have been cross-checked.