The presented paper encompasses four threads of deliberation that show the essence, cognitive value and utility of the concept of creative cities in the shaping of the future of contemporary cities. These threads are: creative development, a model of a creative city, preconditions of a creative city, and the use of a creative city as a vehicle of development.
The article aims at presenting the philosophy and model of the development vehicle to be understood as a new concept and tool to investigate and program local and regional development processes. The practical issues covered by the article include the identification and discovery of development vehicles, the elements of which can be observed in Polish metropolitan areas and agglomerations.
The article contains new approach to creating future of cities and urban regions based on the concept of creative cities. The core of this approach is to treat the genetic code of development as a tool for creating future of the territorial units. The combination and synergy of development genes that were considered as creativity, innovativeness and entrepreneurship allows the use of the fundamental elements of strategic analysis. On one hand, these elements are future challenges of cities and urban regions that they face in the perspective of global trends; on the other hand, they are strategic capabilities of sectors inseparably linked with creativity – sectors of culture, science and business, the integration of which is based on cultural heritage of cities and urban regions. The next issue of the article is the description of the way genes of urban development are manifested in the four sectors. It allows to present the genetic code of development function as a generator of strategic capabilities of creative sectors in cities and urban regions. Finally, the ideas of cross-sectoral undertakings for Polish big cities and urban agglomerations that enable facing intellectual and strategic global challenges were presented. This takes place through the use of strategic capabilities based on the genes of creativity, innovativeness and entrepreneurship; in this way, the genetic code of the development of large cities and urban agglomerations served as the new prospective approach to creating their future.
The paper describes the studies of ternary SnZn9Al1.5 lead-free alloy from the viewpoint of its mechanical behavior as well as microstructure examined by the light and scanning electron microscopy. The authors focused their attention specifically on the fatigue parameters determined by the original modified low-cycle fatigue method (MLCF), which in a quick and economically justified way allows determination of a number of mechanical parameters based on the measurement data coming from one test sample only. The effect of the addition of 1.5% Al to the binary eutectic SnZn9 alloy on its microstructure and the obtained level of mechanical parameters was analyzed. The phases and intermetallic compounds occurring in the alloy were identified based on the chemical analysis carried out in micro-areas by the SEM/EDS technique. It was shown that the addition of 1.5% Al to the binary eutectic SnZn9 alloy resulted in a more favorable microstructure and consequently had a positive effect on the mechanical parameters of the alloy. Based on the conducted research, it was recommended to use a combinatorial method based on the phase quanta theory to quickly evaluate the microstructure and the original MLCF method to determine a number of mechanical parameters.
Lead-free alloys containing various amounts of zinc (4.5%, 9%, 13%) and constant copper addition (1%) were discussed. The results of microstructure examinations carried out by light microscopy (qualitative and quantitative) and by SEM were presented. In the light microscopy, a combinatorial method was used for the quantitative evaluation of microstructure. In general, this method is based on the phase quanta theory according to which every microstructure can be treated as an arrangement of phases/structural components in the matrix material. Based on this method, selected geometrical parameters of the alloy microstructure were determined. SEM examinations were based on chemical analyses carried out in microregions by EDS technique. The aim of the analyses was to identify the intermetallic phases/compounds occurring in the examined alloys. In fatigue testing, a modified low cycle fatigue test method (MLCF) was used. Its undeniable advantage is the fact that each time, using one sample only, several mechanical parameters can be estimated. As a result of structure examinations, the effect of alloying elements on the formation of intermetallic phases and compounds identified in the examined lead-free alloys was determined. In turn, the results of mechanical tests showed the effect of intermetallic phases identified in the examined alloys on their fatigue life. Some concepts and advantages of the use of the combinatorial and MLCF methods in materials research were also presented.