I n t r o d u c t i o n: Hydronephrosis is an actual pediatric problem, affecting children in the anteand neonatal periods. Intrinsic stenosis is due to external obstruction and creates a pathophysiological basis of this urological pathology. Co-localization of ureter with a renal vasculature also could not be omitted from this point of view. Mesenchymal cells, partially telocytes, are important for local fibrosis development and hydronephrosis formation as well. In the current study, we focused on identification of telocytes in the human ureters to hypothesize their role in hydronephrosis pathophysiology. M a t e r i a l a n d Me t h o d s: The samples were taken from 18 surgically treated patients with hydronephrosis (due to ureteral obstruction and crossing renal vessel). The control group consisted of 10 patients suffered from a non-obstructive disease of the urinary tract — predominantly renal tumors. Tissue samples from a ureter were stained for c-kit, tryptase, CD34 and PDGFRα to identify telocytes. Routine histology was performed to analyze tissue morphology, collagen deposits and mast cell’s profile. R e s u l t s: Telocytes were detected in the ureteral wall. In patients with hydronephrosis we revealed decreasing density of telocytes, the prevalence of collagen, rise in mast cells amount and the ureteral wall thickening. In ureters with crossing renal vessels as a primary etiologic factor more telocytes have been observed in comparison with the obstructive hydronephrosis. C o n c l u s i o n s: A declined density of telocytes accompanied hydronephrosis development. Increased number of mast cells in the ureteral wall reflects a local inflammation, while detailed observation of collagen/muscle deposits and density of telocytes reveal a difference depended on etiologic factor (obstruction or crossing vessel) in patients with hydronephrosis.
Knowledge of uterine fibroids has existed since the time of Hippocrates. However, there are still wide gaps in the understanding of its pathogenesis. No single theory explains the background of uterine fibroid pathology, which affects more than 50% of women worldwide. By contrast, a newly depicted cell type called telocytes was only recently identified in the past twenty years. Th ese cells have evoked ambivalent opinions in the scientific community. The unique features of telocytes coupled with experimental evidence by numerous researchers and our hypotheses and conceptions are discussed in this review. We emphasize the main telocyte interactions in the context of the uterine fibroid architecture. This review reveals the pivotal role of telocytes, describing their contacts with smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, vessels and nerves, inflammatory cells and stem cells. Our data are based on the latest publications and our own results.
Alcohol is a recognized teratogen that affects various aspects of fetal development. Tissue that is particularly susceptible to its teratogenicity is neuronal tissue. The effect of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on the central nervous system has been extensively studied, yet the knowledge on the influence of PAE on the autonomic nervous system is scarce. The purpose of this article is to review the current state of knowledge about the impact of PAE on the autonomic nervous system. Studies conducted on the PAE animal model have shown that prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with significant alterations in the autonomic nervous system, but the mechanisms and consequences are not yet clearly defined. It was established that PAE causes decreased heart rate variability (HRV) in fetal cardiotocography. Several studies have revealed that later, in infancy and childhood, reduced parasympathetic activity with or without compensating sympathetic activity is observed. This may result in behavioral and attention disorders, as well as an increased predisposition to sudden infant death syndrome. Both animal and human studies indicate that the relationship between PAE and autonomic dysfunction exists, however large, well-designed, prospective studies are needed to confirm the causal relationship and characterize the nature of the observed changes.
The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the American and European population is estimated to be extremely high. Although fewer people today suff er from serious health problems related to calcium and phosphate metabolism resulting from vitamin D deficiency, there are more and more studies suggesting that calcitriol may play an important role in the pathogenesis of other diseases in virtually every body system. A growing body of research shows that through its ubiquitously expressed receptor, calcitriol displays potent anti-angiogenic an anti-inflammatory activity. Th is review summarizes recent discoveries regarding these non-classical eff ects of vitamin D and their clinical implications. Data collection focused on the prevention and treatment of ocular diseases as well as on the underlying mechanisms.
Objective: The aim of this study was to verify if the exposure to the pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) infl uenced the release of proinfl ammatory cytokines from adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) of normal and overweight rats of various age and sex. Moreover, we compared body temperatures of normal-weight and overweight rats. Methods: ADSCs of Wistar rats were isolated from the subcutaneous area in females and paratesticular region in males, cultured and exposed to PEMF (7 Hz, 30 mT). Concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines were determined in rat sera and supernatant from ADSCs cultures exposed and non-exposed to PEMF. Body temperature (BT) was measured twice a week, using an infrared and rectal thermometer. Results: Irrespective of age and sex, animals maintained on low-fat (LF) diet had higher BT than those grown on high-fat (HF) diet. Exposure to PEMF reduced the release of TNF-α and enhanced the production of IL-6 in ADSCs cultures from female pups maintained on LF diet. In contrast, a decrease in IL-6 level was observed in PEMF-exposed ADSCs cultures from female pups grown on HF diet. A similar phenomenon, i.e. a post-exposure increase in IL-6 level was also observed in male pups fed with the LF diet. In the case of ADSCs cultures from adult rats maintained on an HF diet, either males or females, PEMF exposure contributed to a dramatic increase in TNF-α production. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that PEMF exposure may affect the production of proinflammatory cytokines in ADSCs cultures. The intergroup diff erences in BT may result from the presence of an underlying inflammation in obese rats.
O b j e c t i v e: The main goal of our studies was to investigate the eff ect exerted by pulsed electromagnetic filed (PEMF) on adipocytokines secretion in cell culture supernatants from rat adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) grown on varied energy-rich diet. Off spring and adult animals were randomly selected for two types of experimental diets: low (LF) or high fat (HF) diet for 7 weeks. After the diet period, serum glucose level was measured, ADSCs were isolated from adipose tissues from different locations. ADSCs from all experimental groups were exposed to PEMF, supernatants collected and adipokines level was determined. R e s u l t s: HF diet feed in pups/adult animals elevated blood glucose level and increased the level of adiponectin (Apn) and leptin of both genders and age measured in serum. ADSCs cell cultures originated from female pups on LF diet and exposed to PEMF released large amounts of Apn. PEMF effect exerted on Apn release was also observed in ADSCs isolated from male pups HF diet. ADSCs from female pups on LF diet exposed to PEMF released smaller amounts of leptin in comparison to cell cultures without PEMF treatment. PEMF exposure of ADSCs cell cultures originated from female adults on LF diet decreased release of Apn, contrary adult male on LF diet ADSCs under PEMF treatment produced more leptin. PEMF treated male HF diet-originated ADSCs cultures released significantly more leptin than controls. C o n c l u s i o n: Our results suggest that PEMF exposure is responsible for metabolic physiological balance effects obtained in ADSCs cultures originating from adult animals on HF diet.
Telocyte (TC) is an interstitial cell type with a small cellular body and extremely long tentacle-like extensions. TCs were discovered a decade ago and have specific morphological characteristics, immunohistochemical and secretome profi les, electrophysiological properties, microRNA expression. Moreover, they are different in gene expression from other cells. TCs play an important role in plenty of processes. Apparently, they are involved in homeostasis, remodelling, regeneration, repair, embryogenesis, angiogenesis and even tumorigenesis. “Telocytes need the world”, was emphasized by Professor Popescu and it will be actual at any time. This review summarizes particular features of TCs in different organs and systems, emphasizing their involvement in physiological and pathophysiological processes.
Introduction: Uterine leiomyoma is the most widespread benign tumor affecting women of childbearing age. There are still gaps in the understanding of its pathogenesiss. Telocytes are unique cells described in greater than 50 different locations inside the human body. The functional relationship of cells could clarify the pathogenesis of leiomyomata. In the current study, we focused on the identification of telocytes in all regions of the human uterus to explain their involvement in leiomyoma development. Materials and Methods: Tissue samples from a healthy and myomatous uterus were stained for c-kit, tryptase, CD34 and PDGFRα to identify telocytes. Routine histology was performed to analyze tissue morphology and collagen deposits. Results: Telocytes were detected in the cervix, corpus of the uterus and leiomyoma. The density of telocytes in fibroid foci was reduced compared with normal myometrium. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated the existence of telocytes in all parts of the human body affected and unaff ected by leiomyoma of the uterus. In addition, telocytes were also present in leiomyoma foci. Our results suggest that the reduced density of telocytes is important for the pathomechanisms of myometrial growth, demonstrating its value as a main component of the myomatous architecture.
Background: Anorexia nervosa is a widely prevalent eating disorder that often leads to life-threatening complications. Since it mostly concerns females, many authors have focused on studying the reproductive system in anorexic women. Recently discovered telocytes may give a new insight into the pathophysiology of gynecological complications in these patients. Material and Methods: We adopted an animal model of anorexia nervosa induced by voluntary physical activity. Sixteen female Wistar rats were divided into two groups: control and activity-based anorexia. When the weight loss of activity-based anorexia (ABA) rats reached 25% animals were euthanized. Size and weight measurements as well as histopathological analysis of the reproductive organs were performed. Additionally, we used immunohistochemical staining for detection of telocytes. Results: Telocytes were identified in uteri of anorectic rats but no diff erences were observed when compared to the control group. Nevertheless, in the ABA group the weight of the uteri and the number of follicles in the ovaries decreased significantly. Conclusions: Our rat model of anorexia nervosa mimics the effects of this eating disorder that occur in the female reproductive system since we reported ovarian dysfunction and uterine involution in the experimental animals. It supports its potential role in the further studies of anorexia pathophysiology and treatment possibilities.