The study assessed the effect of cumulative tropospheric ozone on the morphology of an ozone-sensitive (Bel W3) and an ozone-resistant (Bel B) tobacco cultivar, and two petunia cultivars (Mirage, White Cascade). The plants were exposed at two sites differing in tropospheric ozone level for two months during the 2008 growing season. Similar sets of plants were cultivated in control conditions. Morphological parameters of the plants were measured every week during the experiment. The correlation between the recorded results and the cumulative concentrations of tropospheric ozone measured at the two exposure sites was estimated. The ozone-sensitive tobacco cultivar showed increased visible damage after four weeks of the experiment, although ozone was relatively low during the preceding weeks, possibly confirming the cumulative effect of ozone on the plant response. The ozone-resistant tobacco cultivar showed higher mean plant growth and leaf growth than the ozone-sensitive one throughout the experimental period, but at the exposure sites the ozone-sensitive cultivar showed plant growth similar to or higher than the controls, especially at the forest site where ozone concentrations were higher. This suggests a plant defense against reduction of leaf assimilation area (i.e., against leaf necrosis). Petunia cv. Mirage showed lower growth at the control site and had fewer flowers than White Cascade at all sites. White Cascade had more flowers than Mirage in the last week of the experiment at the forest site where tropospheric ozone was higher. Its mean growth was higher at the forest site than at the other exposure site
The aim of presented work was to evaluate the current tourist-leisure management and on this basis to designate the concept of management the Natura 2000 „Puszcza Notecka” area at Drawsko commune area. The natural-landscape valorisation revealed a very high level of environmental values. However, this potential is currently not fully utilized. For enrichment of current tourist infrastructure and full using potential of analyzed area the followed activities were here proposed: designation of new tourist routes, location a resort and small architecture objects.
Cd and Pb concentrations were measured in water, sediment and plant organs collected from selective sites located along the Bogdanka river (Poznań, Poland) in the 2012 growing season. The aim of the investigations was to monitor changes in heavy metal (HM) concentrations in different media over the periods, as well as to evaluate potential of two littoral plants, Phragmites australis and Typha angustifolia, for phytoremediation under natural conditions. Investigations revealed differences in HM concentrations in water and sediments. Higher values were observed in sediments than in water. The decrease in concentrations of both HMs in sediments was noted in two of the three selected water reservoirs during growing seasons, which suggests the possibility of their adsorption and accumulation by aquatic plants. Both investigated plant species accumulated ample amount of Cd and Pb in underground and aboveground plant tissues, however T. angustifolia revealed higher Cd translocation potential than P. australis. The latter revealed higher Pb accumulation in two lakes. Moreover, the translocation ratio was usually higher in spring, especially for Pb, in both plant species. Increasing level of pollution load index in sediment along the Bogdanka watercourse indicates accumulation of measured HMs.
Abstract Nutrition is one of the most important factors influencing quantitative and qualitative plant yield. This study examined the effect of manganese (Mn) in nutrient solution on photosynthetic activity parameters, and the relations between photosynthetic activity parameters, yield and plant nutrient status in tomato (Solanum lycoper-sicum L.). Mn supplementation significantly modified the nutrient content of leaves. Macronutrient content var-ied less than micronutrient content. The optimal Mn concentration differed between the studied cultivars. Both Mn deficit and Mn excess caused a decrease of tomato yield. Gas exchange parameters, relative water content (RWC) and specific leaf area (SLA) were measured in fully expanded tomato leaves. Certain levels of Mn were found to be needed for proper plant function and future yield, and toxic effects of excess Mn were noted. Changes in PN (net photosynthetic rate) were found to be the first signal of plant response to higher Mn supply, while yield was as for optimal Mn concentrations. Under Mn treatment, uptake of some nutrients increased. A higher level of absorbed Mg led to a higher photosynthesis rate and increased stomatal opening. PN and gs (stomatal con-ductance) also increased, while Ci (intercellular CO2 concentration) decreased, indicating proper CO2 consumption during the assimilation process.
Tropospheric ozone is one of the most reactive air pollutants, which causes visible injuries, as well as biomass and yield losses. The negative effect of ozone is cumulative during the growing season; hence crops are the most sensitive plants. Visible symptoms and biomass losses can cause economic losses. Tobacco plants have been recognized as one of the best bioindicators, but data on the cumulative effect of ozone on this species are limited. Results of an experiment with ozone-sensitive tobacco plants grown on sites varying in ozone concentration are presented in this paper. Two indices were used for data presentation of visible leaf injury degree. Higher solar radiation was the main cause of higher ozone concentration at the rural site. Higher tropospheric ozone concentrations were noted in 2010 in comparison to 2011, which was reflected in visible leaf injury. Canonical variate analysis did not reveal highly significant differences between sites, however, differences were observed in certain investigation periods. Moreover, higher leaf injury was noted at the rural site at the end of the experiment in both experimental years. This indicates the cumulative effect of ozone during the growing season. However, higher injury variability was noted at the urban site, even though lower ozone concentrations were noted there. Lower variability of injury at the rural site might suggest lack of influence of particulate matter and occurrence of higher injury even though lower ozone concentrations occurred. Better detection of ozone injury was shown by the first index based on three mean values.
In this paper, we present results indicating ozone effect on visible plants response as well as on other parameters, such as dry weight, chlorophyll concentration, cell membrane stability and salicylic acid content in bioindicator plants. Ozone-resistant and -sensitive clones of white clover (Trifolium repens L. cv. "Regal") were used in the investigations. The experiment was carried out in ambient air conditions of the Wielkopolska province (Poland) in 2005 growing season. The exposure led to changes in the level of plant response parameters that might be used as potential biomarkers of oxidative stress triggered by tropospheric ozone in ambient air conditions.
The aim of the research was to assess the microbiological (number of heterotrophic bacteria, actinobacteria and moulds) and biochemical (urease and acid phosphatase activity) state of peat with the admixture of composts produced from sewage sludge. An additional aim of the research was to demonstrate the influence of those substrates on the morphological traits of scarlet sage (height, number and length of shoots, number of buds and inflorescences, greenness index (SPAD)). Composts produced from sewage sludge, wheat, maize and lupine straw were mixed with peat, where their percentage varied from 25% to 75%. The substrate which included the composts applied in the experiment had a higher number of heterotrophic bacteria and a higher acid phosphatase activity level than the control substrate (peat). The multiplication of moulds and actinobacteria was more intensive than in the peat only in the combinations with K3 (sewage sludge 50%+sawdust 20%+ lupine straw 30%) and K4 (sewage sludge 50%+sawdust 20%+fresh maize straw 30%) composts, whereas the highest urease activity level was observed in the soils produced from K1 (sewage sludge 50%+sawdust 20%+white straw 30%) compost. The most optimal development of plants was observed in the substrate with compost produced from wheat straw. Composts produced from municipal sewage sludge were found to be suitable for growing scarlet sage. However, their effect depends on the percentage of high peat in the substrate.
The major aim of the study was to identify the relationships of photosynthetic pigments with elemental contents of plants exposed to various ambient air conditions. Lolium multiflorum L. plants were exposed at five sites varying in environmental characteristics, including potential air pollution levels. The effect of air pollution by trace elements on plants was examined. Selected trace elements (Pb, Cd, As, Ni, Cr), some macro-elements as well as chlorophyll content were measured after each of four series. The graphical visualization revealed groups of sites with similar response of elements and chlorophyll contents. Sites located outside the city were grouped into one, and two urban sites were grouped into another. The trace element contents were relatively low and, excluding Ni and As, did not reach toxic levels in dry mass of leaves. However, some relations could be noted, which indicates the sensitivity of the photosynthetic process even at low levels of trace elements in ambient air. Chlorophyll b was found to be more sensitive to most of the analyzed trace elements than chlorophyll a. The results revealed chlorophylls, K and Na as indicators of plant stress caused by trace elements present in ambient air, even at relatively low levels.