The article examines mandatory (compulsory) nature of maritime civil liability insurance associated with seafaring. The key question is whether maritime civil liability insurance is indeed a type of compulsory insurance and, if so, whether it falls under the 2003 Law on Compulsory Insurance. The author analyses different maritime civil liability insurance schemes in context of their conformity with legal definition of compulsory insurance and its requisite legal features. Finally, the article reviews the amendments to the Maritime Code as proposed by the Maritime Law Codification Committee, in particular those relating to the unification of rules on financial security.
The article examines the legal status of sea harbours in Poland. The author discusses drafting history of the current Act on Ports and Harbours (1996) and analyzes proposals for its amendment raised by the Sea Cities and Communes Union. The new draft centers on the notion that deciding on legal status of sea harbours should be entrusted to the local government.
The article outlines legal characteristics marine insurance contract under Polish law. Marine insurance is a codified contract, governed expressly by Title VIII of the Polish Maritime Code. It is concluded by mere consent of the parties (consensual contract), it is bilateral, aleatory and it entails consideration in money. Its main characteristic is the requirement of utmost good faith (uberrima fides). It is a standard form contract (contract of adhesion) and often operates in context of permanent contractual relationships. The author notes, however, disagreements within academia as to aleatory natureof maritime insurance.
There are few works on the obligatory character of civil liability insurance for vessel owners. Civil liability insurance for passenger vessels is regulated in Article 182 of the Maritime Code. This type of insurance for vessel owners to cover damages caused by oil pollution are described in Article 273 of the Maritime Code. These are the only types of maritime insurance that are obligatory. Accordingly, it is obvious that obligatory insurance for only two of many dozen maritime hazards, which can be insured against voluntarily, is grossly insufficient. With the exception of damages cased by oil, there is no obligation to obtain civil liability insurance for other types of damage. The international community has ratified an additional two conventions, which impose alternatives to obligatory insurance or financial security in cases of marine environmental pollution. These include the international convention of 1996 on liability and compensation for damages concerned with the shipping of hazardous and dangerous substances and the international convention of 2001 on civil liability for damages caused by bunker oil pollution. Neither of these two conventions has yet to come into force; however, it is possible that they will be ratified by Poland in the nearest future. The introduction of obligatory insurance should also cover other damages resulting from vessel exploitation. Such an obligation could induce increased shipping safety by eliminating vessels that do not comply with safety standards. It would also have an impact on the principles of fair competition in sailing as well as standardize insurance protection.
Air quality is crucial for human health and welfare. A large number of studies have indicated strong associations between ambient air pollution levels and adverse health effects. There is a considerable number of literature reports concerning changes in atmospheric greenhouse emissions, while relatively little is known on changes in atmospheric CO emissions. This paper presents the rate of changes in atmospheric CO emissions using the logarithmic method in the assessment of this rate. Studies were conducted based on source data from 32 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries. Analyses covered the period of 2005–2012. It was found that the average rate of changes had a negative average rate for most, although not all analyzed countries. In three of the 32 countries atmospheric CO emissions increased in that period. While the intensity of these changes varied, a defi nite majority of the countries reduced their CO emissions, whereas Turkey, Poland and Estonia increased their emissions.
The study was aimed at evaluating microbial contamination on the premises of the sewage treatment plant by determining the concentrations of selected groups of airborne microorganisms. Another objective was to determine the antibiotic sensitivity patterns of isolated strains of staphylococci. The research was conducted in a seasonal cycle, by the impaction method using Merck MAS-100 air sampler. Samples were collected at six sites, each representing a different stage of sewage treatment. The susceptibility of isolated staphylococci was assessed with the disc-diffusion method, following the recommendations of the EUCAST. The results indicate that the microbial population in the air of the investigated area was dominated by mold fungi, whose highest average concentration was recorded at site IV located near the final clarifier (7672 CFU•m-3). Heterotrophic bacteria and mannitol-positive staphylococci were the most numerous at locations where sewage undergoes primary treatment. In each subseuqent stage the number of microorganisms emitted into the air from the sewage was lower. Antibiograms show that more than 50% of Staphylococcus spp. exhibited resistance to penicillin and 20% to rifampicin. In addition, 90% of the analyzed strains were sensitive to other antibiotics. The fungal community included the following genera: Cladosporium, Fusarium, Alternaria, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Aureobasidium, and Acremonium.The highest air contamination with all studied groups of microorganisms was recorded at the locations where mechanical sewage treatment was performed. During the subsequent stages lower numbers of heterotrophic bacteria were emitted into the air. The air in the investigated sewage treatment plant did not contain multidrug-resistant staphylococci.