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Nauka | 2020 | No 2 |

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Abstract

In pursuing any kind of scientific activity, we pose a certain problems, and seek solution of them by various methods; as a result, we form our own judgements on the matter to which the given problem pertained, and finally make public this judgement, which is a solution of the problem posed, in conjunction with the relevant evidence. Freedom to pursue science thus requires freedom in each of the four fields mentioned above; that is the individual pursuing scientific activity must enjoy freedom to choose problems, freedom to choose a method, i.e., the means whereby he/she solves his/her problems, freedom of thought, and freedom of speech. Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz (1890–1963), a philosopher of science analyses here all these four “freedoms”, as well as considers both the extent to which each of them is indispensable to the successful advance of science and the extent to which a limitation on them can be justified on other grounds.

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Authors and Affiliations

Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz
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Abstract

The article deals with issues present in the humanities undergoing the changes due to rhetorization of contemporary culture. First I am discussing the impact of the variability of modern culture on traditional humanities (new methodology and new theory of science based on a rhetorical approach to the text and its symbolic and ideological meaning). This caused the great development of various rhetorical studies in the 20th century (from philosophy of language to practical art of speaking and argumentation). In our time, those studies answer the questions: 1) why and for what reasons do we depend on other people's views? 2) how can we exert a positive influence by text communication on other individuals? Therefore, nowadays we are seeing a new rhetorical trend in communication studies concerning all the culture texts – this trend also affects literary studies and cultural anthropology: academic disciplines which adopt the research tools of the traditional and new rhetorical workshop. This new attitude towards the humanities has an impact on general education at schools and universities.

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Cyprian Mielczarski
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Abstract

The extremely rapid development of modern techniques for analyzing the human genome, both in the field of scientific research and diagnostic applications, entails a variety of problems whose solution lags far behind our current technological capabilities. These problems appear in the ethical, social, legal or religious spheres and include such detailed issues as e.g. examination of children for diseases manifested in adulthood, accidental (secondary) results being a side effect of the analysis of the whole genome, the growing offer of tests directed directly to the recipient, patenting of genetic information, confidentiality of genetic data and their availability to third parties, availability of genetic counselling, etc. The legal regulation of these problems, the list of which is growing at an alarming rate, still remains in the sphere of declarations, and its shift to the sphere of real actions seems to be lagging further and further back in time. Do patients, laboratory diagnoses, doctors still have to be held hostage by the legislative impotence?

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Michał Witt
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Abstract

Aortic stenosis is the most common acquired valvular heart disease. Aortic stenosis has growing prevalence in people older than 75 years and natural course of disease is characterized by high mortality rate. According to epidemiological data all patients with aortic stenosis will die after 2–5 years from the first signs of disease if not undergo aortic valve replacement. However, even 40% of patients do not have surgery because of comorbidities related to advanced age. This was the main reason why in 80- and 90-ties of XX century there were intensive attempt to developed an alternative, less invasive treatment methodology for people with aortic stenosis and comorbidities and at high surgical risk. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) was introduced by Dr Alain Cribier in February 2nd, 2002 in Rouen, France. Since that day different aortic transcatheter bioprostheses were used in many randomized clinical trials comparing their safety and effectiveness versus surgical aortic valve replacement. Gradually, it became clear that in all older patients in all risk groups TAVI was equally or even more safe and effective than surgery. Complications after TAVI are relatively rare, but some of them are life-threatening. Heart Team plays a key role in patients selection to TAVI.

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Adam Witkowski
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Abstract

The purpose of this paper is both to present issues related to the interpretation of currently in force provisions on awarding degrees of doctor, habilitated doctor and the title of professor in the light of the Higher Education Law, as well as to attempt to reflect on whether a specific model of scientific promotion (career path) can be found in the analysed regulations. The issues seem to be of key importance for the practice of applying the latter, especially if one assumes that the supreme purpose of a particular model of scientific career is to ensure the highest quality of scientific research.

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Krzysztof Ślebzak
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Abstract

The growing popularity of so-called cognitive enhancement technologies raises questions about their impact on the sphere of individual legal responsibility. This article examines the issue of whether, in a situation where a surgeon, prone to making a fatigue-related medical error, refuses to undergo a safe cognitive enhancement before surgery, the surgeon can be attributed liability for damages. The answer to this question is negative, however, as indicated in the article, the impossibility of attributing damages is a result of (1) the lack of professional guidelines requiring doctors to undergo cognitive enhancement; (2) the lack of scientific evidence that the use of such measures results in the elimination of fatigue and reduces the risk of error. As a result, the negative answer to the analyzed question is not determined by the solution of the model of liability for damages adopted in Polish law, but rather by the current state of research on cognitive improvement. This gives the analysis a universal character and makes it possible to relate the method adopted in it to new results of research on means of cognitive enhancement if any.

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Andrzej Girdwoyń
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Abstract

The Kórnik Library is one of the oldest and most valuable establishments in Poland. By creating a library during the Partitions of Poland and collecting valuable old books and manuscripts, Tytus Działyński intended to save and foster Polish culture and traditions for posterity. Heir to Tytus – Jan Działyński – secured and expanded the Library. Having no heir himself, Jan Działyński left the Działyński inheritance to his nephew, Władysław Zamoyski, who continued his grandfather's and uncle's work. Just before his death, Władysław Zamoyski donated the entire inherited property to the Polish nation. In 1924, he established a Foundation meant to supervise the Library, a museum and the Institute of Dendrology. The Zakłady Kórnickie Foundation operated until 1953 when it was taken over by the Polish Academy of Sciences and has remained within its structure until today. The library continues assembling, developing and sharing its collections. The latest technologies have enabled us to provide the library and museum collections to the largest possible number of readers. The collections have been successively digitized and made available on the Digital Platform of the Kórnik Library created as part of the EU project POPC.02.03.01-IP.01-00-002/15 “Digital access to the resources of the Polish Academy of Sciences in the Library”.

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Authors and Affiliations

Edyta Bątkiewicz-Szymanowska
Magdalena Biniaś-Szkopek
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Abstract

The present Gdansk Library of the Polish Academy of Sciences is the second oldest, unbrokenly operating, publicly available library in today’s Poland. Even on the European scale there are only a few libraries that are of similar age or older. There are many works on the history of the Gdansk Library and its growing collection of books through the centuries. Apart from a brief look at history, this particular article focuses, however, on one other aspect – loans of special collections for exhibitions organized outside the Library by external institutions – the so-called “loan service”. Such modern transformation of an old institution indicates the power of the library and its custodians not only to engage in cultural preservation, but also fostering culture. We should see the special collections loan service in the same light – as reaching out to the public instead of waiting for the public to reach the library. This fact alone indicates a growing shift in the understanding of the library as a service provider. For the purposes of this article, the Gdansk Library has subjectively selected five of the most important and interesting examples of external exhibitions that have used its “special collections loan service” between 2011 and 2020.

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Authors and Affiliations

Wanda Pętlicka
Zofia Tylewska-Ostrowska
Anna Walczak
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Abstract

Bogdan Ney was born on 3 February 1935 in Pinsk. After graduating from high school in Tarnow in 1952, he attended the AGH University of Science and Technology in Cracow, where at the Department of Mining Surveying he received his MSc degree in 1957. At the same faculty he obtained his PhD degree in 1963 and habilitation in 1977. Two years later he was awarded the title of extraordinary professor of technical sciences, and in 1989 – the title of full professor.

His scientific career started in 1957 at the AGH University of Science and Technology in Cracow working as an assistant at the Department of the Descriptive Geometry, which from 1960 he continued in the Department of Geodesy and Surveying Data Processing. In 1969–1974 he served as the deputy director at the Institute of Mining and Engineering Surveying of the AGH University of Science and Technology in Cracow. His scientific interest focused on the problems of errors in surveying measurements, adaptation of some statistical techniques to the needs of surveying and development of surveying calculation methods, and methods and techniques of inventory, implementation and control measurements in engineering and engineering surveying. In 1974 Bogdan Ney was transferred to the Institute of Geodesy and Cartography (IGiK) in Warsaw for the position of director of the Institute which he held until 1991. In 1986, he was elected a corresponding member of the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAS), and in 2002 a full member of PAS. As the director and then the head of the System Research Laboratory of IGiK he was further involved in research, providing valuable contributions in the following fields: the use of principles and techniques of aerial and satellite remote sensing in various fields of science and applications; general, organizational and economic problems of surveying and mapping as well as related disciplines; spatial information systems; scientific and scientific-technical policy. In 1991–1997 he continued his educational activity lecturing at the Military University of Technology. The entire scientific achievements of Bogdan Ney consist of more than 300 publications, and many presentations on national and international conferences and seminars. His was the author/coauthor of 24 monographs, 6 textbooks and many other scientific reports. He successfully supervised 10 PhD students.

Bogdan Ney had great achievements in organizational and social activities. He was active in numerous committees, councils, societies and associations. In 1998 the Agriculture-Technical Academy in Olsztyn honoured Bogdan Ney awarding him an honorary doctor degree. Bogdan Ney enjoyed widespread recognition of the scientific community due to his high culture, responsibility in carrying out numerous duties, supporting young scientists, outstanding ability to solve conflict situations and sincere kindness towards all people. He was not only a respected scientist and authority, but also a wonderful man, full of tact and warmth, admired and liked by colleagues. Professor Bogdan Ney, age 85, passed away in Warsaw, on 23 March 2020. He was one of the outstanding surveyors with wide reputation in the scientific community.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jan Kryński
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Abstract

Stanisław Lorenc graduated from the Wrocław University, where he obtained his master degree in geology. In 1973, he was awarded a doctoral degree, in 1980 he obtains habilitation (postdoctoral degree) and in 1994 he was promoted to full professor. In 1988 Stanisław Lorenc moves to Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań and became a director of the Institute of Geology. He gained a global reputation as an explorer of the ocean floor. In the years 1996–2002 professor Lorenc was the vice-rector in the team of the then rector, prof. Stefan Jurga. In the years 2002–2008 he was the rector of the University of Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan. Rector's term of Stanisław Lorenc covered a wide spectrum of scientific research, education, development of the scientific staff, international cooperation and cultural, sporting and social activities, student affairs and infrastructure. The most important at the university for prof. Stanisław Lorenc were people of academic and administrative staff, students and all those who collaborated with the university. Saying farewell during academic senate the rector, prof. Andrzej Lesicki, said: You were not only a great rector, an outstanding scholar, but also, and perhaps above all, a good, warm man. Professor Stanisław Lorenc died on January 19, 2020. He was 77 years old.

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Authors and Affiliations

Andrzej Muszyński
Kazimierz Przyszczypkowski

Editorial office

Komitet Redakcyjny:


JERZY BRZEZIŃSKI – redaktor naczelny
Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza
Instytut Psychologii – Poznań
e-mail: brzezuam@amu.edu.pl


ANDRZEJ B. LEGOCKI
Polska Akademia Nauk
Instytut Chemii Bioorganicznej – Poznań
e-mail: legocki@ibch.poznan.pl


ELŻBIETA SARNOWSKA-TEMERIUSZ
Polska Akademia Nauk
Instytut Badań Literackich – Warszawa
e-mail: ibadlit@ibl.waw.pl


JAN WĘGLARZ
Politechnika Poznańska, Instytut Informatyki
Poznańskie Centrum Superkomputerowo-Sieciowe
przy Instytucie Chemii Bioorganicznej PAN – Poznań
e-mail: weglarz@man.poznan.pl


ANDRZEJ WÓJTOWICZ – sekretarz redakcji
Instytut Chemii Bioorganicznej PAN
Ośrodek Wydawnictw Naukowych – Poznań
e-mail: wojtow@man.poznan.pl

 

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Artykuł:

Watson J.D., Crick F.H.C., Molecular structure of nucleic acids. „Nature” 1953, nr 171, s. 737-738.

Książka:

Ziman J., Reliable knowledge. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1978, s. 124-157.

Rozdział w książce:

Klemensiewicz Z. Przekład jako zagadnienie językoznawstwa, [w:] O sztuce tłumaczenia, pod redakcją M. Rusinka, Wrocław 1955, Zakład im. Ossolińskich, s. 85-97.

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prof. dr hab. J, ERZY BRZEZIŃSKI – redaktor naczelny
Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza, Instytut Psychologii
60-568 Poznań, ul. Szamarzewskiego 89
tel.: (+48-61) 8292307, faks: (+48-61) 8292107
e-mail: brzezuam@amu.edu.pl

prof. dr hab. ELŻBIETA SARNOWSKA-TEMERIUSZ
Polska Akademia Nauk, Instytut Badań Literackich
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tel.: (+48-22) 6572895, faks: (+48-22) 8269945
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Politechnika Poznańska, Instytut Informatyki
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e-mail: weglarz@man.poznan.pl

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Międzynarodowy Instytut Biologii Molekularnej i Komórkowej UNESCO/PAN
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tel.: (+48-22) 6685220, faks: (+48-22) 6685288
e-mail: zylicz@iimcb.gov.pl

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Redakcja kwartalnika NAUKA
61-713 Poznań, ul. Wieniawskiego 17
tel.: (+48-61) 8528503, faks: (+48-61) 8520532
e-mail: wojtow@man.poznan.pl

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