Applied sciences

Chemical and Process Engineering


Chemical and Process Engineering | 2016 | vol. 37 | No 4 December |

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Straw-fired batch boilers, due to their relatively simple structure and low operating costs, are an excellent source of heat for a wide range of applications. A concept prototype of a cogeneration system with a straw-fired batch boiler was developed. The basic assumptions were based on the principles of the Rankine Cycle and the Organic Rankine Cycle systems with certain design modifications. Using the prototype design of a system that collects high-temperature heat from the boiler, studies were performed. The studies involved an analysis of the flue gas temperature distribution in the area of the oil exchanger, a comparison of the instantaneous power of the boiler’s water and oil circuits for different modes of operation, as well as an analysis of the flue gas. In the proposed system configuration where the electricity production supplements heat generation, the power in the oil circuit may be maintained at a constant level of approx. 20-30 kW. This is possible provided that an automatic fuel supply system is applied. Assuming that the efficiency of the electricity generation system is not less than 10%, it will be possible to generate 2-3 kW of electricity. This value will be sufficient, for an on-site operation of the boiler.

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Authors and Affiliations

Krzysztof Sornek
Mariusz Filipowicz
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The work concerns the dynamic behaviour of a porous, isothermal catalyst pellet in which a simultaneous chemical reaction, diffusion and adsorption take place. The impact of the reactant adsorption onto the pellet dynamics was evaluated. A linear isotherm and a non-linear Freundlich isotherm were considered. Responses of the pellet to sinusoidal variations of the reactant concentration in a bulk gas were examined. It was demonstrated that the dynamics of the pellet is significantly affected both by accounting for the adsorption and by the frequency of the bulk concentration variations. The sorption phenomenon causes damping of the concentration oscillations inside the pellet and damping of its effectiveness factor oscillations. Depending on the frequency of the concentration oscillations in the bulk, the remarkable oscillations can involve an entire volume of the pellet or its portion in the vicinity of the external surface.

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Authors and Affiliations

Katarzyna Bizon
Bolesław Tabiś
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Experiments on a confined fluidized bed system with various shapes of particles have been presented in the paper. Its influence on hydrodynamic properties in the whole range of gas velocity has been analysed. Relations allowing calculation of the Richardson-Zaki-type equation coefficients, including description of inter-particle void and gas pressure drop in such systems have been determined. Necessary condition for confined fluidization of non-spherical coarse particles has also been determined.

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Authors and Affiliations

Bronisław Buczek
Piotr Zabierowski
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One of the important parameters describing pneumatic liquid atomisation is the air to liquid mass ratio (ALR). Along with the atomiser design and properties of the liquid it has extremely important influence on parameters of atomised liquid such as: mean droplet diameter, jet range and angle. Knowledge about real characteristics of an atomiser in this respect is necessary to correctly choose its operating parameters in industrial applications.

The paper presents results of experimental research of two-fluid atomisers with internal mixing built according to custom design. Investigated atomizers were designed for spraying a urea aqueous solution inside the power boiler combustion chamber. They are an important element of SNCR (selective non-catalytic reduction) installation which is used to reduce nitrogen oxides in a flue gas boiler. Obtained results were used by authors in further research, among others to determine the boundary conditions in the SNCR installation modeling.

The research included determining mean droplet diameter as a function of ALR. It has been based on the immersion liquid method and on the use of specialised instrumentation for determining distribution of droplet diameters in a spray – Spraytec by Malvern. Results obtained with both methods were later compared. The measurements were performed at a laboratory stand located at the Institute of Heat Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology. The stand enables extensive investigation of the water atomisation process.

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Authors and Affiliations

Piotr Krawczyk
Krzysztof Badyda
Szczepan Młynarz
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The objective of the work are in-depth experimental studies of Cu(II) and Zn(II) ion removal on chitosan gel beads from both one- and two-component water solutions at the temperature of 303 K. The optimal process conditions such as: pH value, dose of sorbent and contact time were determined. Based on the optimal process conditions, equilibrium and kinetic studies were carried out. The maximum sorption capacities equaled: 191.25 mg/g and 142.88 mg/g for Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions respectively, when the sorbent dose was 10 g/L and the pH of a solution was 5.0 for both heavy metal ions. One-component sorption equilibrium data were successfully presented for six of the most useful three-parameter equilibrium models: Langmuir-Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, Sips, Koble-Corrigan, Hill and Toth. Extended forms of Langmuir-Freundlich, Koble-Corrigan and Sips models were also well fitted to the two-component equilibrium data obtained for different ratios of concentrations of Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions (1:1, 1:2, 2:1). Experimental sorption data were described by two kinetic models of the pseudo-first and pseudo-second order. Furthermore, an attempt to explain the mechanisms of the divalent metal ion sorption process on chitosan gel beads was undertaken.

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Authors and Affiliations

Józef Nastaj
Małgorzata Tuligłowicz
Konrad Witkiewicz
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Rotary kiln installation forms a very complex system, as it consists of various components which affect cement production. However, some problems with particle settling are encountered during operation of tertiary air installation. This paper reports on the results of a study into gas-particle flow in a tertiary air duct installation. This flow was calculated using Euler method for air motion and Lagrange method for particle motion. The results in this paper demonstrate that study focus on the tertiary air installation is a practical measure without the analysis of other processes in the rotary kiln. A solution to this problem offers several alternatives of modifying the inlet to the tertiary air duct. As a result of numerical calculations, we demonstrate the influence of geometry of a rotary kiln modification on the number of large particles transported in the tertiary air duct. The results indicate that in order to reduce large particles, rotary kiln head geometry needs to be modified, and a particle settler should be installed at its outlet.

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Authors and Affiliations

Grzegorz Borsuk
Jacek Wydrych
Bolesław Dobrowolski
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This paper presents studies carried out in a pilot-scale plant for recovery of waste heat from a flue gas which has been built in a lignite-fired power plant. The purpose of the studies was to check the operation of the heat recovery system in a pilot scale, while the purpose of the plant was recovery of waste heat from the flue gas in the form of hot water with a temperature of approx. 90 °C. The main part of the test rig was a condensing heat exchanger designed and built on the basis of laboratory tests conducted by the authors of this paper. Tests conducted on the pilot-scale plant concerned the thermal and flow parameters of the condensing heat exchanger as well as the impact of the volumetric flow rate of the flue gas and the cooling water on the heat flux recovered. Results show that the system with a condensing heat exchanger for recovery of low-temperature waste heat from the flue gas enables the recovery of much higher heat flux as compared with conventional systems without a condensing heat exchanger.

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Authors and Affiliations

Piotr Szulc
Kazimierz Wójs
Tomasz Tietze

Editorial office

Andrzej K. Biń, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Editorial Board
Andrzej Burghardt (Chairman), Polish Academy of Sciences, Gliwice, Poland
Jerzy Bałdyga, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Andrzej Górak, T.U. Dortmund, Germany
Leon Gradoń, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Andrzej Jarzębski, Silesian University of Technology, Poland
Zdzisław Jaworski, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland
Władysław Kamiński, Technical University of Łódź, Poland
Stefan Kowalski, Poznań University of Technology, Poland
Andrzej Krasławski, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland
Stanisław Ledakowicz, Technical University of Łódź, Poland
Eugeniusz Molga, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Alvin W. Nienow, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom
Andrzej Noworyta, Wrocław University of Technology, Poland
Ryszard Pohorecki, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Andrzej Stankiewicz, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands
Czesław Strumiłło, Technical University of Łódź, Poland
Stanisław Sieniutycz, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Krzysztof Warmuziński, Polish Academy of Sciences, Gliwice, Poland
Laurence R. Weatherley, University of Kansas, Lawrence, United States
Günter Wozny, T.U. Berlin, Germany
Ireneusz Zbiciński, Technical University of Łódź, Poland

Technical Editor
Barbara Zakrzewska, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland
Language Editor
Marek Stelmaszczyk, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland



Editorial Office
ul. Waryńskiego 1
00-645 Warszawa


Instructions for authors

All manuscripts submitted for publication in Chemical and Process Engineering must comprise a description of original research that has neither been published nor submitted for publication elsewhere.

The content, aim and scope of the proposals should comply with the main subject of the journal, i.e. they should deal with mathematical modelling and/or experimental investigations on momentum, heat and mass transfer, unit processes and operations, integrated processes, biochemical engineering, statics and kinetics of chemical reactions. The experiments and modelling may cover different scales and processes ranging from the molecular phenomena up to production systems. The journal language is grammatically correct British English.

Chemical and Process Engineering publishes: i) full text research articles, ii) invited reviews, iii) letters to the editor and iv) short communications, aiming at important new results and/or applications. Each of the publication form is peer-reviewed by at least two independent referees.  

Submission of materials for publication

The manuscripts are submitted for publication via e-mail address When writing the manuscript, authors should preferably use the template for articles.

Proposals of a paper should be uploaded using the Internet site of the journal and should contain:

  • a manuscript file in Word format (*.doc, *.docx),
  • the manuscript mirror in PDF format,
  • all graphical figuresin separate graphics files.

In the following paragraphthe general guidelines for the manuscript preparation are presented.

Manuscript outline

        1. Header details
          1. Title of paper
          2. Names (first name and further initials) and surnames of authors
          3. Institution(s) (affiliation)
          4. Address(es) of authors
          5. Information about the corresponding author; academic title, name and surname, email address, address for correspondence
        2. Abstract – should contain a short summary of the proposed paper. In the maximum of 200 words the authors should present the main assumptions, results and conclusions drawn from the presented study.
        3. Keywords– Up to 5 characteristic keyword items should be provided.
        4. Text
          1. Introduction. In this part, description of motivation for the study and formulation of the scientific problem should be included and supported by a concise review of recent literature.
          2. Main text. It should contain all important elements of the scientific investigations, such as presentation of experimental rigs, mathematical models, results and their discussion. This part may be divided into subchapters.
          3. Conclusions. The major conclusions can be put forward in concise style in a separate chapter. Presentation of conclusions from the reported research work accompanied by a short commentary is also acceptable.
          4. Figures: drawings, diagrams and photographs can be in colour and should be located in appropriate places in the manuscript text. Their graphical form should be of vector or raster type with the minimum resolution of 900 dpi. In addition, separate files containing each of the drawings, graphs and photos should be uploaded onto the journal Web site in one of the following formats: bmp, gif, tiff, jpg, eps. Due to rigid editorial reasons, graphical elements created within MS Word and Excel are not acceptable. The final length of figures should be intended typically for 8 cm (single column) or 16 cm in special cases of rich-detail figures. The basic font size of letters in figures should be at least 10 pts after adjusting graphs to the final length.  

          Figures: drawings, diagrams and photographs should be in gray scale. In case of coloured graphs or photo an additional payment of 300 PLN (72 €) per 1 page containing coloured figures on both sides, or 150 PLN (36 €) per page containing coloured figures on one side will be required.

          Tables should be made according to the format shown in the template.

        5. All figures and tables should be numbered and provided with appropriate title and legend, if necessary. They have to be properly referenced to and commented in the text of the manuscript.

        6. List of symbols should be accompanied by their units
        7. Acknowledgements may be included before the list of literature references
        8. Literature citations


The method of quoting literature source in the manuscript depends on the number of its authors:

  • single author – their surname and year of publication should be given, e.g. Marquardt (1996) or (Marquardt, 1996),
  • two authors – the two surnames separated by the conjunction “and” with the publication year should be given, e.g. Charpentier and McKenna (2004) or (Charpentier and McKenna, 2004),
  • three and more authors – the surname of the first author followed by the abbreviation “et al.” and year of publication should be given, e.g. Bird et al. (1960) or (Bird et al., 1960).

In the case of citing more sources in one bracket, they should be listed in alphabetical order using semicolon for separation, e.g. (Bird et al., 1960; Charpentier and McKenna, 2004; Marquardt, 1996). Should more citations of the same author(s) and year appear in the manuscript then letters “a, b, c, ...” should be successively applied after the publication year.

Bibliographic data of the quoted literature should be arranged at the end of the manuscript text in alphabetic order of surnames of the first author. It is obligatory to indicate the DOI number of those literature items, which have the numbers already assigned. Journal titles should be specified by typingtheir right abbreviationsor, in case of doubts, according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations available at

Examples of citation for:

Charpentier J. C., McKenna T. F., 2004.Managing complex systems: some trends for the future of chemical and process engineering. Chem. Eng. Sci., 59, 1617-1640. DOI: 10.1016/j.ces.2004.01.044.

Information from books (we suggest adding the page numbers where the quoted information can be found)
Bird R. B., Stewart W.E., Lightfood E.N., 2002. Transport Phenomena. 2nd edition, Wiley, New York, 415-421.

Chapters in books
Hanjalić K., Jakirlić S., 2002. Second-moment turbulence closure modelling, In: Launder B.E., Sandham N.D. (Eds.), Closure strategies for turbulent and transitional flows. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 47-101.

ten Cate A., Bermingham S.K., Derksen J.J., Kramer H.M.J., 2000. Compartmental modeling of an 1100L DTB crystallizer based on Large Eddy flow simulation. 10th European Conference on Mixing. Delft, the Netherlands, 2-5 July 2000, 255-264.

8. Payments

Starting from 2014 a principle of publishing articles against payment is introduced, assuming non-profit making editorial office. According to the principle authors or institutions employing them, will have to cover the expenses amounting to 40 PLN (or 10 €) per printed page. The above amount will be used to supplement the limited financial means received from the Polish Academy of Sciences for the editorial and publishing; and in particular to increase the capacity of the next CPE volumes and to proofread the linguistic correctness of the articles. The method of payment will be indicated in an invoice sent to the authors or institutions after acceptance of their manuscripts to be published. In justifiable cases presented in writing, the editorial staff may decide to relieve authors from basic payment, either partially or fully. All correspondence should be sent to Editor-in-Chief, Prof. Andrzej K. Biń, email address:

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