Nauki Techniczne

Archives of Foundry Engineering


Archives of Foundry Engineering | 2013 | No 3 |


The paper presents a research results concerning impact of volume modification (ceramic filter containning cobalt aluminate and hafniumpowder) and simultaneous surface and volume modification on solidification and stereological parameters of macrostructure of castingsmade from post-production scrap of nickel superalloy IN-713C. Research included investigation of the influence of chemical compositionon the temperature Tliq i Tsol and evaluation of following macrostructure parameters: the number of grains per mm2, average grain area andshape coefficient. Results indicate high influence of carbon content on Tliq. Macrostructure of sample castings indicate positive effect of surface and volume modification, however impact of surface modification is more pronounced.
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Slag refining slag with west materials was analysed used the DTA methods. In the paper a method of determining the reduction capability, with the Carbo-N-Ox method, of slag solutions was used. Some relations between the stimulators in the environment - slag - metal system allow to initiate mass exchange reactions in the process of slag refining.The presented in work course of behaviour permits on choice of basic composition of slaglite, the of necessary components stimulating quantities, as well as on accomplishment of opinion of ability refinement. The worked out programme Slag-Prop, after introduction of data with experiment, it allows on next corrections in composition of proposed mixtures also, should be put on properly elaborated factors of multistage reaction with essential usage of suitable stimulators.
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During the slag refining process, in the real systems, the complex processes of mass exchange appear. Some relations between the stimulators in the environment - slag - metal system allow to initiate mass exchange reactions in the process of slag refining. Due to this kind of influences there is a possibility of direction and control of melting copper and it’s alloys.
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Mechanization of the process of core making with the use of inorganic and organic binders is based, almost solely, on core blowing machines. Presently the core blowing machines are equipped with tools and devices that allow for application of different technologies of core making. Cold-box, hot-box and warm-air technologies require that core blowing machines shall be additionally equipped with either core-box pre-heating system or gas purging and neutralization system, or hot air purging systems. Considering the possibility of using varied, the most advantageous technologies of core making, the production of universal core blowing machines equipped with replaceable devices has been undertaken in Poland. The universal core blowing systems allow for mechanization of core making process also with the use of sand, bonded by modern, eco-friendly binder systems. The paper presents selected results-based evaluation of core blowing process showing the scope of conducted design and implementation works.
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This paper presents the results of the abrasive wear resistance of selected types of nodular cast iron, including ADI, cooperating with quartz sand and 100 grit abrasive paper. It has been shown that carbides in nodular cast iron cause an increase in wear resistance of 6 to 12% depending on the surface fraction of the carbides and type of the matrix. For the same unit pressure the mass loss of the cast iron cooperating with quartz sand is many times larger than the cast iron cooperating with abrasive paper. For both abrasives the highest wear resistance showed nodular cast iron with upper and lower bainite and carbides.
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The paper summarizes research realized by the author in laboratory and industrial conditions (foundries of cast steel and cast iron, castings up to 50 tons) on the effects of the chemically hardened molding sands regeneration using hard/soft rubbing in the dry reclamation. A reference was simultaneously made to advisability of application of the thermal regeneration in conditions, where chromite amount in the circulating (reclaimed) molding sand goes as high as above ten percent. An advisability of connecting standard and specialized methods of examination of the reclaimed sands and molding sands made using it was pointed out. A way of application of studies with the Hot Distortion Plus® method modified by the author for validation of modeling of the thermo-dynamic phenomena in the mold was shown.
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One of the factors that contribute to the development of foundry moulding technology is environmental protection. The related challenges are effectively satisfied by a new inorganic binder that has been designed for castings made of non-ferrous metal alloys. This article presents in a concise way the test results, showing the ecological character of the new binder at the stage of making moulds, pouring them with metal and cooling of castings, indicating the possibilities for an economic re-use of waste materials formed during practical application of this technology. The results were compared with the results obtained on the sands with organic binders. Studies were carried out under the project POIG.01.01.02-00-015/09 "Advanced materials and technologies."
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The paper presents the optimization of master alloy amount for the high nodular graphite yield (80-90%) in cast iron obtain in lost foam process. The influence of the gating system configuration and the shape of the reaction chamber, the degree of spheroidisation cast iron was examined. Research has shown that the, optimal of master alloy amount of 1.5% by mass on casting iron. The degree of spheroidisation is also influenced by the gating system configuration. The best spheroidisation effect was obtained for liquid cast iron was fed into the reaction chamber from the bottom and discharged from the top.
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In the article we were studing the impact of the remelting on transformations in Co-Cr-Mo prosthetics alloy. The TDA curves were analyzed, the microstructure was examined, the analysis of the chemical composition and hardness using the Brinell method was made. It was found that the obtained microstructure of the alloys that we studied do not differ significantly. In all four samples, microscopic images were similar to each other. The volume, size and distribution of the phases remain similar. Analysis of the chemical composition showed that all the samples fall within the compositions provided for the test alloy. Further to this the hardness of the samples, regardless of the number of remeltings did not show any significant fluctuations and remained within the error limit.After analyzing all the results, it can be concluded that the remeltings of the alloys should not have a significant impact on their properties. Secondarily melted alloys can be used for prosthetics works.
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Metal alloys with matrix based on an Fe-Al system are generally considered materials for high-temperature applications. Their main advantages are compact crystallographic structure, long-range ordering and structural stability at high temperatures. These materials are based on an intermetallic phase of FeAl or Fe3Al, which is stable in the range from room temperature up to the melting point of 1240°C. Their application at high temperatures is also beneficial because of the low cost of production, very good resistance to oxidation and corrosion, and high mechanical strength. The casting alloy the structure of which includes the FeAl phase is, among others, highaluminium cast iron. This study has been devoted to the determination of the effect of vanadium and titanium on the transformation of the high-aluminium cast iron structure into an in-situ FeAl-VC composite.
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The article presents issues related to creating and realizing added value by logistic processes and processing in a casting enterprise. It discusses possibilities of improving systems of casts production by evaluating labour intensity of casts manufacture and analyzing manufacturing prime costs. Operations with added value, processes indirectly creating added value and operations without added value have been specified. The problem was presented on the example of materials flow design in a foundry, where casts are manufactured in expendable moulds and using automated foundry lines. On the basis of the Pareto analysis, a group of casts was specified whose manufacture significantly influences the functioning of the whole enterprise. Finishing treatment operations have been particularly underlined, as they are performed away from the line and are among the most labour-consuming processes during casts production.
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Stereological description of dispersed microstructure is not an easy task and remains the subject of continuous research. In its practical aspect, a correct stereological description of this type of structure is essential for the analysis of processes of coagulation and spheroidisation, or for studies of relationships between structure and properties. One of the most frequently used methods for an estimation of the density Nv and size distribution of particles is the Scheil - Schwartz – Saltykov method. In this article, the authors present selected methods for quantitative assessment of ductile iron microstructure, i.e. the Scheil - Schwartz – Saltykov method, which allows a quantitative description of three-dimensional sets of solids using measurements and counts performed on two-dimensional cross-sections of these sets (microsections) and quantitative description of three-dimensional sets of solids by X-ray computed microtomography, which is an interesting alternative for structural studies compared to traditional methods of microstructure imaging since, as a result, the analysis provides a three-dimensional imaging of microstructures examined.
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The method of pressure die casting of composites with AlSi11 alloy matrix reinforced with 10 vol. % of SiC particles and the analysis of the distribution of particles within the matrix is presented. The composite castings were produced at various values of the piston velocity in the second stage of injection, at diverse intensification pressure values, and various injection gate width values. The distribution of particles over the entire cross-section of the tensile specimen is shown. The index of distribution was determined on the basis of particle count in elementary measuring fields. The regression equation describing the change of the considered index was found as a function of the pressure die casting parameters. The conclusion presents an analysis of the obtained results and their interpretation.
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The paper presents the results of studies on the effect of the AlSi17Cu5 alloy overheating to atemperature of 920°C and modification with phosphorus (CuP10) on the resultingmechanical (HB, Rm, R0.2) and plastic (A5 and Z) properties. It has been shown that, so-called, "timethermal treatment" (TTT) of an alloy in the liquid state, consisting inoverheating the metal to about 250°C above Tliq,holding at this temperature by 30 minutes improvesthe mechanical properties. It has also been found that overheating of alloy above Tliq.enhances the process of modification, resulting in the formation of fine-grain structure. The primary silicon crystals uniformly distributed in the eutectic and characteristics ofthe α(Al) solution supersaturated with alloying elements present in the starting alloy composition (Cu, Fe) provide not only an increase of strength at ambient temperature but also at elevated temperature (250°C).
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According to the analysis of the current state of the knowledge shows that there is little information on the process of phase transformations

that occur during the cooling Cu-Al-Fe-Ni hypo-eutectoid bronzes with additions of Cr, Mo and/or W, made additions individually

or together, for the determination of: the type of crystallizing phases, crystallizing phases, order and place of their nucleation.

On the basis of recorded using thermal and derivative analysis of thermal effects phases crystallization or their systems, analysis of the

microstructure formed during crystallization - observed on the metallographic specimen casting ATD10-PŁ probe, analysis of the existing

phase equilibrium diagrams forming elements tested Cu-Al-Fe-Ni bronze, with additions of Cr, Mo, W and/or Si developed an original

model of crystallization and phase transformation in the solid state, the casting of high quality Cu-Al-Fe-Ni bronze comprising: crystallizing

type phase, crystallizing phase sequence, place of nucleation.

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The influence of aluminium added in amounts of about 1.6%, 2.1%, or 2.8% on the effectiveness of cast iron spheroidization

with magnesium was determined. The cast iron was melted and treated with FeSiMg7 master alloy under industrial conditions.

The metallographic examinations were performed for the separately cast rods of 20 mm diameter. They included the assessment of the

shape of graphite precipitates and of the matrix structure. The results allowed to state that the despheroidizing influence of aluminium

(introduced in the above mentioned quantities) is the stronger, the higher is the aluminium content in the alloy. The results of examinations

carried out by means of a computer image analyser enabled the quantitative assessment of the considered aluminium addition influence.

It was found that the despheroidizing influence of aluminium (up to about 2.8%) yields the crystallization of either the deformed nodular

graphite precipitates or vermicular graphite precipitates. None of the examined specimens, however, contained the flake graphite

precipitates. The results of examinations confirmed the already known opinion that aluminium widens the range of ferrite crystallization.

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The problem considered in the paper is motivated by production planning in a foundry equipped with the furnace and casting line, which

provides a variety of castings in various grades of cast iron/steel for a large number of customers. The quantity of molten metal does not

exceed the capacity of the furnace, the load is a particular type of metal from which the products are made in the automatic casting lines.

The goal is to create the order of the melted metal loads to prevent delays in delivery of goods to customers. This problem is generally

considered as a lot-sizing and scheduling problem. The paper describes two computational intelligence algorithms for simultaneous

grouping and scheduling tasks and presents the results achieved by these algorithms for example test problems.

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The investigations were inspired with the problem of cracking of steel castings during the production process. A single mechanism

of decohesion – the intergranular one – occurs in the case of hot cracking, while a variety of structural factors is decisive for hot cracking

initiation, depending on chemical composition of the cast steel. The low-carbon and low-alloyed steel castings crack due to the presence

of the type II sulphides, the cause of cracking of the high-carbon tool cast steels is the net of secondary cementite and/or ledeburite

precipitated along the boundaries of solidified grains. Also the brittle phosphor and carbide eutectics precipitated in the final stage

solidification are responsible for cracking of castings made of Hadfield steel. The examination of mechanical properties at 1050°C

revealed low or very low strength of high-carbon cast steels.

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In this paper crystallization studies of low-alloyed construction cast steel were presented for different additions of chromium, nickel and

molybdenum modified with vanadium and titanium. Studies were conducted using developed TDA stand, which additionally enabled

evaluation of cooling rate influence on crystallization process of investigated alloys.

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It has been found that the area where one can look for significant reserves in the procurement logistics is a rational management

of the stock of raw materials. Currently, the main purpose of projects which increase the efficiency of inventory management is to

rationalise all the activities in this area, taking into account and minimising at the same time the total inventory costs. The paper presents

a method for optimising the inventory level of raw materials under a foundry plant conditions using two different control models. The first

model is based on the estimate of an optimal level of the minimum emergency stock of raw materials, giving information about the need

for an order to be placed immediately and about the optimal size of consignments ordered after the minimum emergency level has

occurred. The second model is based on the estimate of a maximum inventory level of raw materials and an optimal order cycle.

Optimisation of the presented models has been based on the previously done selection and use of rational methods for forecasting the time

series of the delivery of a chosen auxiliary material (ceramic filters) to a casting plant, including forecasting a mean size of the delivered

batch of products and its standard deviation

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Directional solidification of ledeburite was realised out using a Bridgman’s device. The growth rate for movement sample v=83.3 μm/s

was used. In one sample the solidification front was freezing. The value of temperature gradient in liquid at the solidification front was

determined. Interfacial distance λ on the samples was measured with NIS-Elements application for image analysis.

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The work is a part of research into the reduction of energy consumption in the production of EPSthrough the modernization

of technological equipment used. This paper presents the results of research and analysis of heat transfer process between the water vapor

that was provided to machine, the mold, the product and the environment. The paper shows the calculation of the heat balance of the

production cycle for two types of mold: standard and modernized. The performance tests used an infrared imaging camera.

The results were used to develop a computer image analysis and statistical analysis. This paper presents the main stages of the production

process and the construction of technological equipment used, changing the mold surface temperature field during the production cycle

and the structure of the heat balance for the mold and its instrumentation. It has been shown that the modernization of construction

of technological equipment has reduced the temperature field and as a consequence of decreased of demand for process steam production


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In paper is presented idea of construction and influence of selected parts of stand of horizontal continuous casting on quality of pure Al and AlSi2

alloy ingots. The main parts of the made stand belong to induction furnace, which is also tundish, water cooled continuous casting mould, system

of recooling, system of continuous ingot drawing and cutting. Mainly was considered influence of electromagnetic stirrer, which was placed

in continuous casting mould on refinement of ingots structure. Effect of structure refinement obtained by influence of electromagnetic stirring was

compared with refinement obtained by use of traditional inoculation, which consists in introducing of additives i.e. Ti and B to metal bath. The

results of studies show possibility of effective refinement of Al and AlSi2 alloy primary structure, only with use of horizontal electromagnetic field

and without necessity of application of inoculants. This method of inoculation is important, because inoculants decrease the degree of purity

and electrical conductivity of pure aluminum and moreover are reason of point cracks formation during rolling of ingots.

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Investigations of operating parameters of widely used sand mixers reveal a wide variability range in the values of parameters associated

with their power demand. Power efficiency of manufacturing processes has received a great deal of attention lately, which encourages the

research efforts to optimise this aspects of operation of machines and installations as well. In the first place these machines

and installations have to work properly as a part of the process line- which applies also to moulding sand mixers. Experiments conducted

by the authors suggest that the same goal can be achieved at variable energy input levels. To obtain information about the power demands

of sand mixers requires the use of highly specialised equipment, methodology and result processing procedures. This study provides a brief

characteristic of measurement equipment and results of measurements taken on a unit AG-015 (based on a roller mixer) and a laboratory

rotor mixer.

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J. Szajnar
Deputy Editor
J. Jezierski

Theoretical Aspects of Casting Processes
K. Eigenfeld – Freiberg, Germany
E. Guzik – Kraków, Poland
T. G. Mathia - Lyon, France
W. Wołczyński – Kraków, Poland
Innovative Foundry Technologies and Materials
T. Elbel – Ostrava, Czech Republic
Z. Ignaszak – Poznań, Poland
O. P. Pandey – Punjab, India
A. Pereira - Vigo, Spain
Foundry Processes Computer Aiding
B. Mochnacki – Częstochowa, Poland
J. Roučka – Brno, Czech Republic
J.S. Suchy – Kraków, Poland
Mechanization, Automation and Robotics in Foundry
J. Bast – Freiberg, Germany
R. Wrona – Kraków, Poland
Transport Systems in Foundry
J. Dańko – Kraków, Poland
Z. Li – Shijiazhuang, China
Castings Quality Management
D. Bolibruchova– Żilina, Slovak Republic
J. D. B. de Mello - Santa Monica, Brazil
M. Perzyk – Warszawa, Poland
Environment Protection
M. Holtzer – Kraków, Poland
H. Polzin – Freiberg, Germany
J. Sobczak – Kraków, Poland
I. Volchok – Zaporizhzhya, Ukraine

J. Braszczyński – Częstochowa, Poland
B. K. Dhindaw – Rupnagar, India
L. A. Dobrzański – Gliwice, Poland
W. A. Hufenbach – Dresden, Germany
P. Jelínek – Ostrava, Czech Republic
L. Jeziorski – Częstochowa, Poland
J. Lacaze – Toulouse, France
V. L. Naydek – Kiev, Ukraine
A. Passerone – Genova, Italy
I. Riposan – Bucharest, Romania
F. Romankiewicz – Zielona Góra, Poland
A. Sládek – Żilina, Slovak Republic

S. A. Argyropoulos – Toronto, Canada
M. Azadi – Tehran, Iran
Y. Babaskin – Kiev, Ukraine
K. Bako – Miskolc, Hungary
E. Bayraktar – Paris, France
L. Bechný – Zilina, Slovak Republic
V. Bednarova - Ostrava, Czech Republic
F. Bińczyk – Katowice, Poland
A. Bokota – Częstochowa, Poland
G.P. Borisov – Kiev, Ukraine
A. Bydałek – Kraków, Poland
C. H. Cáceres – Brisbane, Australia
J. Čech – Brno, Czech Republic
L. Q. Chen – Shenyang, China
A. Chojecki – Kraków, Poland
M. Cholewa – Gliwice, Poland
I. A. Dibrov – Moscow, Russia
D. Dispinar – Istanbul, Turkey
S. M. Dobosz – Kraków, Poland
V. I. Dubodelov – Kiev, Ukraine
A. Fedoryszyn – Krakow, Poland
J. Głownia – Kraków, Poland
K. Granat – Wrocław, Poland
J. Hampl – Ostrava, Czech Republic
J. Helber – Düsseldorf, Germany
M. Hetmańczyk – Katowice, Poland
M. Horáček – Brno, Czech Republic
M. Kaczorowski – Warszawa, Poland
W. Kapturkiewicz – Kraków, Poland
R. Kawalla – Freiberg, Germany
Z. Konopka – Czestochowa, Poland
D. Kopyciński – Kraków, Poland
W. K. Krajewski – Kraków, Poland
Z. Libo – Beijing, China
P. Lichy – Ostrava, Czech Republic
Y. P. Lim – Setapak, Malaysia
T. Lipiński – Olsztyn, Poland
E. Majchrzak – Gliwice, Poland
A. Mityayev - Zaporizhzhya, Ukraine
M. Murgaš – Trnava, Slovak Republic
I. Nová – Liberec, Czech Republic
W. Orłowicz – Rzeszów, Poland
T. Pacyniak – Łódź, Poland
B. Piekarski – Szczecin, Poland
A. Rimmer – West Bromwich, United Kingdom
S. Samavedam – Hyderabad, India
P. Schumacher – Leoben, Austria
N. Sczygiol – Częstochowa, Poland
P. Skočovský – Żilina, Slovak Republic
M.S. Soiński – Częstochowa, Poland
J. Sokolowski – Ottawa, Kanada
K. V. Sudhakar – Butte, USA
B. G. Thomas - Champaign, USA
M. Trbižan – Ljubljana, Slovenia
J. Vuorinen – Tampere, Finland
E. Ziółkowski – Kraków, Poland
J. Zych – Kraków, Poland

D. Bartocha – Gliwice, Poland, - editorial secretary
J. Suchoń – Gliwice, Poland - editorial secretary
J. Szymszal – Katowice, Poland, Statistic Editor
A. Dulska – Gliwice, Poland
M. Kondracki – Gliwice, Poland
C. Borek –Chicago, USA, Language Editor



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