Applied sciences

Archives of Electrical Engineering


Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2012 | vol. 61 | No 2 June |

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Paper deals with examinations of properties of shape memory alloy actuators. Authors describe design of own laboratory stand for obtaining electro-thermo-mechanical characteristics of SMA wires (maximum length 900 mm). The stand allows for semi-automatic measurements of voltage and current (supplying the actuator), temperature of wire and its extension. Data acquisition and control signals are realized by PC computer. All elements of the measuring system are connected by GPIB network (IEEE 488.2 standard). Control program for static measurements was written in G language (LabVIEW environment). Temperature is measured using infrared camera Flir A325. Displacement measurement system contains optical sensor (converting piston movement into series of pulses), pulses counter, PWM signal generator (PWM signal fulfillment is proportional to number of pulses), lowpass filter and buffer conditioning external signal. For dynamic measurements data recording is performed using digital oscilloscope Tektronix MSO 2024 equipped with four separated channels and digital filter. Wide range of examinations of several SMA wires allowed for drawing its exploitative characteristic helpful for practical use. It shows length change of actuator as a function of mechanical load (Fig. 10). Finally some example static as well as dynamic characteristics are presented and short discussion is carried out.

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Authors and Affiliations

Grzegorz Kłapyta
Marek Kciuk
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In the paper an algorithm and computer code for the identification of the hysteresis parameters of the Jiles-Atherton model have been presented. For the identification the particle swarm optimization method (PSO) has been applied. In the optimization procedure five design variables has been assumed. The computer code has been elaborated using Delphi environment. Three types of material have been examined. The results of optimization have been compared to experimental ones. Selected results of the calculation for different material are presented and discussed.

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Authors and Affiliations

Łukasz Knypiński
Lech Nowak
Piotr Sujka
Kazimierz Radziuk
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In the paper an algorithm and computer code for the identification of the hysteresis parameters of the Jiles-Atherton model have been presented. For the identification the particle swarm optimization method (PSO) has been applied. In the optimization procedure five design variables has been assumed. The computer code has been elaborated using Delphi environment. Three types of material have been examined. The results of optimization have been compared to experimental ones. Selected results of the calculation for different material are presented and discussed. A novel vector operated one-cycle control matrix rectifier (OCC-MR) is proposed in this paper. Matrix rectifier (MR) is a generalized buck three-phase AC-DC converter with four-quadrant operation capability. MR can also be the front-stage circuit of AC-DC-AC equivalent structure of MC. One-cycle control (OCC) is a nonlinear control technique, which integrates modulation algorithm and control strategy. By applying OCC to current control loop, the OCC-MR achieves balance only in a switching cycle,and realizes unitary input power factor. Furthermore, vector operation of OCC results In minimum switching losses. In order to make up for the insufficiency of OCC on load disturbance suppression, a PID controller is added onto output voltage control to improve load regulation. The OCC-MR features great simplicity, fast dynamic response and good immunity on input disturbance. On the basis of theoretical analysis, a systematic simulation of OCC-MR is implemented by means of Matlab/Simulink. Both static state performance and dynamic state performance of OCC-MR are discussed deeply. The simulation results have proved theoretical analysis of the vector operation of OCC-MR, and the control effects are satisfactory.

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Authors and Affiliations

Xinghua Yang
Jianguo Jiang
Xijun Yang
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This paper describes a fault-tolerant controller (FTC) of induction motor (IM) with inter-turn short circuit in stator phase winding. The fault-tolerant controller is based on the indirect rotor field oriented control (IRFOC) and an observer to estimate the motor states, the amount of turns involved in short circuit and the current in the short circuit. The proposed fault controller switches between the control of the two components of measured stator current in the synchronously rotating reference frame and the control of the two components of estimated current in the case of faulty condition when the estimated current in the short circuit is not destructive of motor winding. This technique is used to eliminate the speed and the rotor flux harmonics and to assure the decoupling between the rotor flux and torque controls. The results of the simulation for controlling the speed and rotor flux of the IM demonstrate the applicability of the proposed FTC.

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Authors and Affiliations

Djilali Toumi
Mohamed Boucherit
Mohamed Tadjine
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The fixed-point theorem is widely used in different engineering applications. The present paper focuses on its applications in optimisation. A Matlab toolbox, chich implements the branch-and-bound optimisation method based on the fixed-point theorem, is used for solving different real-life test problems, including estimation of model parameters for the Jiles-Atherton model.

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Authors and Affiliations

Krzysztof Chwastek
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The paper introduces a comprehensive investigation in end winding inductances of large two-pole turbo-generators. With the aid of an analytic-numeric approach, where Neumann's formula is applied, the influence of geometric characteristics of double-layer stator end windings with involute shape is analysed. This parameter study results in approximation formulas for the stator self and mutual inductances at stand level as well as for the common used end winding leakage inductance. In order to consider field affecting components as pressure plate, flux shield, rotor shaft and rotor retaining ring, finite elements models for two machines (250 MVA and 1150 MVA) are created and computed. The results are integrated in the developed approximation formulas. Finally the simulation results of machine 1 are compared to the data of two different measurements. All approaches introduced in this paper show good correlation. The high speed of the analytic-numeric calculation is combined with the accuracy and opportunity to consider field affecting components within the extensive finite element computation successfully.

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Authors and Affiliations

Michael Freese
Stefan Kulig
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In the electromagnetic field simulation of modern servo drives, the computation of higher time and space harmonics is essential to predict torque pulsations, radial forces, ripple torques and cogging torque. Field computation by conformal map ping (CM) techniques is a time-effective method to compute the radial and tangential field components. In the standard CM approach, computational results of cogging torque simulations as well as overload operations observe deviations to nonlinear finite element (FE) simulations due to the neglection of slot leakage and saturation effects. This paper presents an extension of the classical CM. Additional CM parameters are computed from single finite element computations so as to consider both effects listed above in the model over a wide operation range of the electrical drive. The proposed approach is applied to a surface permanent magnet synchronous machine (SM-PMSM), and compared to numerical results obtained by finite element analysis (FEA). An accuracy similar to that of FE simulations is obtained with however the low computation time that is characteristic for analytical models.

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Authors and Affiliations

Martin Hafner
David Franck
Kay Hameyer
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In the paper an improved method of calculation of the inductance and capacitances in the ?1 circuit for Class A, AB, B, and C resonant power amplifiers is presented. This method is based on an assumption that the quality factor of the inductor is inite and the capacitors are lossless. The input parameters for calculations are the amplifier load resistance, the transistor load resistance, the quality factor of the inductor, the loaded quality factor of the designed circuit, and the operating frequency. The presented method allows reducing the required regulation range of ?1 circuits elements In built resonant amplifiers as compared to the traditional calculation methods assuming lossless capacitors and inductor. This advantage is important, in particular, for long- and medium-wave transistor power amplifiers, where capacitances in ?1 circuits are high comparing to typical trimming capacitors.

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Authors and Affiliations

Juliusz Modzelewski
Katarzyna Kulma
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Transmission line loss minimization in a power system is an important research issue and it can be achieved by means of reactive power compensation. The unscheduled increment of load in a power system has driven the system to experience stressed conditions. This phenomenon has also led to voltage profile depreciation below the acceptable secure limit. The significance and use of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) devices and capacitor placement is in order to alleviate the voltage profile decay problem. The optimal value of compensating devices equires proper optimization technique, able to search the optimal solution with less computational burden. This paper presents a technique to provide simultaneous or individual controls of basic system parameter like transmission voltage, impedance and phase angle, thereby controlling the transmitted power using Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) based on Bacterial Foraging (BF) algorithm. Voltage stability level of the system is defined on the Fast Voltage Stability Index (FVSI) of the lines. The IEEE 14-bus system is used as the test system to demonstrate the applicability and efficiency of the proposed system. The test result showed that the ocation of UPFC improves the voltage profile and also minimize the real power loss.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Kumar
P. Renuga
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The paper presents a modelling mathematical tool for prediction of dynamic and steady-states operation of the single-phase capacitor induction motor for different values of the capacitor capacitance and different frequency of voltage supply at no-load and rated load conditions. Developed mathematical model of the capacitor induction motor was implemented for calculation using Matlab/Simulink software. Presented simulation results may be utilized to achieve better starting quality of single-phase capacitor induction motors.

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Authors and Affiliations

Aleksander Leicht
Krzysztof Makowski
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The efficiency of the solid-rotor induction machines depends on axial length of rotor (including the end-regions). Determination of the best axial length is problematic because of current density distribution in the end-regions and also because of absence of dedicated methods and models. This work proposes a method that circumvents this difficulty. It is based on the numerical determination of a dimensionless rotor-end factor using a combination of three- and two-dimensional finite element models restricted to the motor rotor. Such the end factor can be used in both analytical and numerical model of the machine in order to determine the typical performance characteristics. In this work, using this method, we determined an optimal length of the slitted solid rotor of a motor operating at 12 000 rpm, that maximizes the motor efficiency. The results of computations and measurements, carried out on the laboratory test-stand, are presented.

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Authors and Affiliations

Mariusz Jagiela
Tomasz Garbiec
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Design of a delta/polygon-connected autotransformer based 36-pulse ac-dc converter is presented in this paper. The 36-pulse topology is obtained via two paralleled eighteen-pulse ac-dc converters each of them consisting of a nine-phase (nine-leg) diode bridge rectifier. For independent operation of paralleled diode-bridge rectifiers, two interphase transformers (IPT) is designed and implemented. A transformer is designed to supply the rectifier. The design procedure of magnetics is in a way such that makes it suitable for retrofit applications where a six-pulse diode bridge rectifier is being utilized. The proposed structure has been implemented and simulated using Matlab/Simulink software under different load conditions. Simulation results confirmed the significant improvement of the power quality indices (consistent with the IEEE-519 standard requirements) at the point of common coupling. Furthermore, near unity power factor is obtained for a wide range of DTCIMD operation. A comparison is made between 6-pulse and proposed converters from view point of power quality indices. Results show that input current total harmonic distortion (THD) is less than 4% for the proposed topology at variable loads.

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Authors and Affiliations

Rohollah Abdollahi

Editorial office

Professor Andrzej Demenko, Poznan University of Technology, Poland

Deputy/ Managing Editor
Mariusz Barański, Ph.D., Poznan University of Technology, Poland
Łukasz Knypiński, Ph.D., Poznan University of Technology, Poland

Editorial Advisory Board
Chairman: Marian P. Kaźmierkowski, Warsaw, Poland
Secretary: Mariusz Jagieła, Opole, Poland

Members professors:
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Frede Blaabjerg,Aalborg, Denmark

Ion Boldea,Timisoara, Romania

Herbert De Gersem,Darmstadt, Germany

Jacek Gieras, Rockford, USA

Kay Hameyer, Aachen, Germany

Marian K. Kazimierczuk, Dayton, USA

Stefan Kulig, Dortmund, Germany

David A. Lowther, Montreal, Canada

Jacek Marecki, Gdańsk, Poland

Fausto Pedro García Márquez, Ciudad Real, Spain

Zhuoxiang Ren, Paris, France

José Rodríguez Pérez, Santiago, Chile

Ryszard Sikora, Szczecin, Poland

Zbigniew Styczyński, Magdeburg, Germany

Jan Sykulski, Southampton, UK

Sławomir Wiak, Łódź, Poland


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Statistical Editor

Mariusz Barański, Poznan, Poland
Poznan University of Technology

Theme Editors

Jerzy Barglik, Gliwice, Poland
Professor at Silesian University of Technology

Zbigniew Lubosny, Gdansk, Poland
Professor at Gdańnk University of Technology

Marian Łukaniszyn, Opole, Poland
Professor at Opole University of Technology

Marian Pasko, Gliwice, Poland
Professor at Silesian University of Technology

Stanisław Piróg, Krakow, Poland
Professor at AGH University of Science and Technology

Henryka Danuta Stryczewska, Lublin, Poland
Professor at Lublin University of Technology

Jan Sykulski, Southampton, UK
Professor at University of Southampton

Adam Szelag, Warsaw, Poland
Professor at Warsaw University of Technology

Romulad Włodek, Krakow, Poland
Professor at AGH University of Science and Technology

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All contributions should be addressed to the Editor-in-Chief or the Editorial Office:

Address of the Editorial Office:

Archives of Electrical Engineering
Piotrowo 3A (Room 612X)
60-965 Poznan, Poland
tel: (48-61) 665-26-36
fax: (48-61) 665-23-81


Instructions for authors

ARCHIVES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (AEE) (previously Archiwum Elektrotechniki), quarterly journal of the Polish Academy of Sciences is OpenAccess, publishing original scientific articles and short communiques from all branches of Electrical Power Engineering exclusively in English. The main fields of interest are related to the theory & engineering of the components of an electrical power system: switching devices, arresters, reactors, conductors, etc. together with basic questions of their insulation, ampacity, switching capability etc.; electrical machines and transformers; modelling & calculation of circuits; electrical & magnetic fields problems; electromagnetic compatibility; control problems; power electronics; electrical power engineering; nondestructive testing & nondestructive evaluation.,

Manuscript submission:

All manuscripts should be submitted electronically on Editorial System.

Submission of paper to the Archives of Electrical Engineering is understood to imply that the article is original, unpublished and is not being considered for publication elsewhere. All articles will be reviewed. Since 2013, Authors wishing to use the facility of colour printing should consult the editors.,


Microsoft Word is recommended as a standard word processor to prepare the paper to the AEE journal. If you use the LaTex format, please transfer your document to Microsoft Word and then use Template AEE.

While editing your paper, make sure that all the mathematical characters (symbols, identifiers, variables, vectors, axis marks, etc.) have the required shape, thickness, and slant kept throughout the whole article. The same appearance of a given mathematic character must be retained regardless of its place (text, equations, tables or figures).

The articles that don’t conform to the above will not be processed and published.


The reviewing process:

Each paper submitted for publication in Archives of Electrical Engineering is subjected to the following review procedure:
a) the paper is reviewed by the editor in chief or guest editor for general suitability for publication in AEE
b) if it is judged suitable two reviewers are selected and a double blind peer review process takes place
c) based on the recommendations of the reviewers, the editor then decides whether the paper should be accepted in its present form, revised or rejected
d) the author(s) is(are) informed by e-mail on the results of the reviewing procedure.
The papers are published on average within 3 months after acceptance.


Requirements for preparation of manuscripts:

The manuscripts submitted for publication should not exceed 21 000 characters (ca. 12 pages of a manuscript written on an A4 sheet in Times New Roman, 10pt font size, single line spacing and 3.8 cm margins). The manuscripts, written in UK English, should be typed using Template AEE according to the following instructions and should include: a title page with the title of a manuscript, a short title; abstract; key words, text; list of references. A DOI number as well as received and revised data will be completed by Editor. When you open Template.doc, select "Print Layout" from the "View" menu in the menu bar (View > Print Layout). Then type over sections of Template.doc or cut and paste from another document and then use markup styles (Home > Styles). For example, the style at this point in the document is "main text").

All papers submitted for publication are assessed on the basis of the mutual anonymity rule as to the names of reviewers and authors. Authors' names and affiliations should not appear in the attached text/tables/figures.

If English is not your first language, ask an English-speaking colleague to proofread your manuscript. The manuscripts that fail to meet basic standards of literacy are likely to be immediately declined or after the language assessment, sent to the authors for linguistic improvement.

The manuscripts are published on average within 3 months after their acceptance.

Do not change the font sizes or line spacing to squeeze more text into a limited number of pages. Leave some open space around your figures.

The AEE journal publishes an ORCID for all authors. You will need a registered ORCID in order to submit your paper for peer review. ORCID registration is free and only takes a minute. Please note that ORCIDs will be added in the course of the author's proofreads.



The pages must be numbered consecutively. Articles should be divided into numbered sections, and if necessary subsections, preferably: Introduction, Material, Methods, Results, Conclusion and References. Any special characters (e.g. Greek, script, etc.) should be named in the margin where the character first occurs in the text. Names of species are to be accentuated with wavy underlining (italics). Equations should be numbered serially (1), (2), ... on the right side of the page. Footnotes should be avoided, if required, they should be used only for brief notes which do not fit well into the text. Figures and tables have to be included into the text. If table is typed on a separate page its position in the text should be marked. Abbreviations should be explained when they first appear in the text.,


Please use the Microsoft Equation 3.0 editor (comes with Microsoft Office 2007 and later versions) or the MathML editor as well as MathType editor to build an equation in your manuscript.
To insert an equation in Word, choose Insert, then Object. This will bring up a dropdown menu, where the Object option should be chosen again. Pressing it opens a popup window, where the Create New option has to be clicked. Scrolling down the window allows to find Microsoft Equation 3.0.



Equations should be typed within the text, centred, and should be numbered consecutively throughout the text. Their numbers should be typed in parentheses, flush right. Equations should be referred to in text, e.g. (1), except at the beginning of a sentence: "Equation (1) is ...". All symbols appearing in equations have to be defined in the text, before or just after the equation.
If the symbols are written in Times New Roman use italic fonts. Symbols of vectors and matrices should be written in bold fonts. Do not italicize Greek fonts and mathematical symbols like e.g.: the derivative symbol d, max, min, etc. The indices of symbols that are indices themselves should be written in a clear manner.
Note that the equation is centered using a center tab stop. Please keep the same font in the formulas and text.,

Unit Symbols, Abbreviations:

Define abbreviations and acronyms the first time they are used in the text, even after they have been defined in the abstract. Abbreviations such as IEEE, SI, MKS, CGS, sc, dc, and rms do not have to be defined. Do not use abbreviations in the title or heads unless they are unavoidable.
Si units are recommended for use in formulas, drawings and tables., for example the SI unit for magnetic field strength H is A/m. Apply the center dot to separate compound units.
Do not mix complete spellings and abbreviations of units: "Wb/m2" or "webers per square meter," not "webers/m2." Spell units when they appear in text: "...a few henries…", not "...a few H…".
Use a zero before decimal points: "0.25," not ".25." Use "cm3," not "cc."
Unit Symbols, SI Prefixes as well as Abbreviations should be writing in accordance with the IEEE standard,

Tables, figures (illustrations) and captions:

The illustrations (line diagrams and photographs) should be suitable for direct reproduction. The lettering as well the details should have proportional dimensions to maintain their legibility after the usual reduction. All illustrations should be numbered consecutively (Fig. X). Tables are numbered with Arabic numerals.
All figures, figure captions, and tables in the text must be inserted into the correct places.
Figures, photos, tables or other parts of a manuscript that have previously appeared in another publication or are not the property of the authors must be properly acknowledged in the manuscript. Permission to republish these items must be obtained by the corresponding author from a person or institution holding the copyright, usually the publisher.
Authors are requested to send figures (diagrams, line drawings and photographic images) in separate computer files. JPG, PNG or TIF are the recommended file formats. Photographs, colour and greyscale figures should be at least at a resolution of 400dpi. Linear, including tables should be at a minimum of 600dpi.
All colour figures should be generated in the RGB or CMYK colour space, while greyscale images in the greyscale colour space.
When preparing your figures/graphics etc., we suggest the use of the Arial 8 point font for axis numbers and Arial 9 point font for axis names. Figures/graphics etc. can be prepared in one of two proposed ways - see Template AEE.
Tables are numbered with Arabic numerals. Use 9 point Times New Roman for the title of the table and 9 point Times New Roman for the filling of the table (9 in the case of symbols with subscripts).
AEE journal allows an author to publish color figures in e-version at no charge, and automatically convert them to grayscale for print versions. Authors wishing to use the facility of color printing should consult the editors.,


A conclusion might elaborate on the importance of the work or suggest applications and extensions. Although a conclusion may review the main points of the manuscript, do not replicate the abstract as the conclusion.,


References in text must be numbered consecutively by Arabic numerals placed in square brackets. Please make sure that you use full names of journals i.e. Archives of Electrical Engineering. Please ensure that all references in the Reference list are cited in the text and vice versa.
Please provide name(s) and initials of author(s), the title of the manuscript, editors (if any), the title of the journal or book, a volume number, the page range, and finally the year of publication in brackets.
You can use the rules presented on the site: IEEE standard b>

Examples of the ways in which references should be cited are given below:

Journal manuscript
[1] Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of paper, Title of periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).
[1] Steentjes S., von Pfingsten G., Hombitzer M., Hameyer K., Iron-loss model with consideration of minor loops applied to FE-simulations of electrical machines, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 3945-3948 (2013).
[2] Idziak P., Computer Investigation of Diagnostic Signals in Dynamic Torque of Damaged Induction Motor, Electrical Review (in Polish), to be published.
[3] Cardwell W., Finite element analysis of transient electromagnetic-thermal phenomena in a squirrel cage motor, submitted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics.

Conference manuscript
[4] Author A., Title of conference paper, Unabbreviated Name of Conf., City of Conf., Country of Conf., pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).
[4] Popescu M., Staton D.A., Thermal aspects in power traction motors with permanent magnets, Proceedings of XXIII Symposium Electromagnetic Phenomena in Nonlinear Circuits, Pilsen, Czech Republic, pp. 35-36 (2016).

Book, book chapter and manual
[5] Author1 A., Author2 A.B., Title of book, Name of the publisher (YEAR).
[5] Zienkiewicz O., Taylor R.L., Finite Element method, McGraw-Hill Book Company (2000).

[6] Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of patent, European Patent, EP xxx xxx (YEAR).
[6] Piech Z., Szelag W., Elevator brake with magneto-rheological fluid, European Patent, EP 2 197 774 B1 (2011).

[7] Author A., Title of thesis, PhD Thesis, Department, University, City of Univ. (YEAR).
[7] Driesen J., Coupled electromagnetic-thermal problems in electrical energy transducers, PhD Thesis, Faculty of Applied Science, K.U. Leuven, Leuven (2000).

For on electronic forms
[8] Author A., Title of article, in [Title of Conference, record as it appears on the copyright page], © [applicable copyright holder of the Conference Record] (copyright year), doi: [DOI number].
[8] Kubo M., Yamamoto Y., Kondo T., Rajashekara K., Zhu B., Zero-sequence current suppression for open-end winding induction motor drive with resonant controller,in IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), © APEC (2016), doi: 10.1109/APEC.2016.7468259

[9], accessed April 2010.



Authors will receive proofs for correction, which should be returned promptly. All joint contributions must indicate the name and address of the authors to whom proofs should be sent.,

Fees for printing the papers in Archives of Electrical Engineering:

AEE is published in Open Access, which means that all articles are available on the internet to all users immediately upon publication free of charge for the readers. Authors will be asked to a declaration that they are ready to cover the costs of printing their article.
The fee for the publication of an article in the AEE journal is 200 Euro.


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Open Access policy

Archives of Electrical Engineering jest czasopismem wydawanym w wolnym dostępie na licencji CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

Archives of Electrical Engineering is an open access journal with all content available with no charge in full text version. The journal content is available under the licencse CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

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