Applied sciences

Archives of Civil Engineering


Archives of Civil Engineering | 2015 | No 2 |


In order to identify the modal parameters of civil structures it is vital to distinguish the defective data from that of appropriate and accurate data. The defects in data may be due to various reasons like defects in the data collection, malfunctioning of sensors, etc. For this purpose Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) was engaged toenvisage the distribution of sensor’s data and to detect the malfunctioning with in the sensors. Then outlier analysis was performed to remove those data points which may disrupt the accurate data analysis. Then Data Driven Stochastic Sub-space Identification (DATA-SSI) was engaged to perform the modal parameter identification. In the end to validate the accuracy of the proposed method stabilization diagrams were plotted. Sutong Bridge, one of the largest span cable stayed bridge was used as a case study and the suggested technique was employed. The results obtained after employing the above mentioned techniques are very valuable, accurate and effective.

Go to article


During implementation of construction projects, durations of activities are affected by various factors. Because of this, both during the planning phase of the project as well as the construction phase, managers try to estimate, or predict, the length of any delays that may occur. Such estimates allow for the ability to take appropriate action in terms of planning and management during the execution of construction works. This paper presents the use of the non-deterministic concept for describing the uncertainty of estimating works duration. The concept uses the theory of fuzzy sets. The author describes a method for fuzzy estimations of construction works duration based on the fact that uncertain data is an inherent factor in the conditions of construction projects. An example application of the method is presented. The author shows a fuzzy estimation for the duration of an activity, taking into consideration the distorting influence caused by malfunctioning construction equipment and delivery delays of construction materials.

Go to article


To investigate the mechanical properties of tunnel lining concrete under different moderate-low strain rates after high temperatures, uniaxial compression tests in association with ultrasonic tests were performed. Test results show that the ultrasonic wave velocity and mass loss of concrete specimen begin to sharply drop after high temperatures of 600°C and 400°C, respectively, at the strain rates of 10‒5s‒1 to 10‒2s‒1. The compressive strength and elastic modulus of specimen increase with increasing strain rate after the same temperature, but it is difficult to obtain an evident change law of peak strain with increasing strain rate. The compressive strength of concrete specimen decreases first, and then increases, but decreases again in the temperatures ranging from room temperature to 800°C at the strain rates of 10‒5s‒1 to 10‒2s‒1. It can be observed that the strain-rate sensitivity of compressive strength of specimen increases with increasing temperature. In addition, the peak strain also increases but the elastic modulus decreases substantially with increasing temperature under the same strain rate.

Go to article


Light-weight Self-Compacting Concrete (LWSCC) might be the answer to the increasing construction requirements of slenderer and more heavily reinforced structural elements. However there are limited studies to prove its ability in real construction projects. In conjunction with the traditional methods, artificial intelligent based modeling methods have been applied to simulate the non-linear and complex behavior of concrete in the recent years. Twenty one laboratory experimental investigations on the mechanical properties of LWSCC; published in recent 12 years have been analyzed in this study. The collected information is used to investigate the relationship between compressive strength, elasticity modulus and splitting tensile strength in LWSCC. Analytically proposed model in ANFIS is verified by multi factor linear regression analysis. Comparing the estimated results, ANFIS analysis gives more compatible results and is preferred to estimate the properties of LWSCC.

Go to article


One of the main threats to constructions made from rammed earth is destruction due to exposure to water. The way to limit this dangerous phenomenon is to supplement the local soil mixtures with stabilizing agents. The main component used is Portland cement. This article analyses the results of research which focused on the resistance of rammed earth to water erosion. Because of the lack of national standards regarding the method of examining the durability of rammed earth, the research was based on the New Zealand standard NZS 4298: 1998. The results confirm the possibility of using rammed earth stabilized by cement in a temperate climate.

Go to article


The subject of the numerical investigation is an ellipsoidal head with a central (axis-symmetrical) nozzle. The nozzle is loaded by axial load force. The ellipsoidal head is under axial-symmetrical compression load. The numerical FEM model is elaborated. The calculation will provide the critical loads and equilibrium paths for the sample head.. The investigation will measure the influence of the diameter of the nozzle on the critical state of the ellipsoidal head.

Go to article


Probabilistic analysis of a space truss is presented in the paper. Reliability of such a structure is sensitive to geometrical and material imperfections. The objective of this paper is to present a variant of the point estimate method (PEM) to determine mean values and standard deviations of limit loads of engineering structures. The main advantage presented by this method is the small number of sample calculations required to obtain estimators of investigated parameters. Thus the method is straightforward, requiring only preliminaries of probability theory. This approach is illustrated by limit state analysis of a space truss, considering geometric and material imperfections. The calculations were performed for different random models, so the influence of random parameters on the limit load of the truss can be determined. A realistic snow load was imposed.

Go to article


The paper presents findings from research project Mobis which is aimed at developing a method of assessing safety of unsignalised pedestrian road crossings using video image analysis. Pedestrian and vehicle traffic has been recorded at selected zebra crossing sites in Warsaw and Wrocław, before and after installation of active signage systems SignFlash and Levelite. Speeds of approaching vehicles were measured and drivers’ behaviour was classified using video analysis.

The paper presents a comparison of effectiveness of systems such as SignFlash and Levelite based on changes in the mean and standard deviation of vehicle spot speeds as well as changes in speed profiles of vehicles approaching the crossings.

Results indicate that both SignFlash and Levelite active signage reduce mean vehicle approach speeds and have a positive impact on drivers’ behaviour.

Go to article


One of the basic parameters which describes road traffic is Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT). Its accurate determination is possible only on the basis of data from the continuous measurement of traffic. However, such data for most road sections is unavailable, so AADT must be determined on the basis of short periods of random measurements. This article presents different methods of estimating AADT on the basis of daily traffic (VOL), and includes the traditional Factor Approach, developed Regression Models and Artificial Neural Network models. As explanatory variables, quantitative variables (VOL and the share of heavy vehicles) as well as qualitative variables (day of the week, month, level of AADT, the cross-section, road class, nature of the area, spatial linking, region of Poland and the nature of traffic patterns) were used. Based on comparisons of the presented methods, the Factor Approach was identified as the most useful.

Go to article


In this stud y, we attempt to analyse free nonlinear vibrations of buckling in laminated composite beams. Two new methods are applied to obtain the analytical solution of the nonlinear governing equation of the problem. The effects of different parameters on the ratio of nonlinear to linear natural frequencies of the beams are studied. These methods give us an agreement with numerical results for the whole range of the oscillation amplitude.

Go to article

Editorial office

Henryk Zobel

Deputy Editor-in-Chief
Mariola Książek

Scientific Advisory Committee
Andrzej M. Brandt
Werner Brilon (Germany)
Jacek Chróścielewski
Luc Courard (Belgium)
Andrzej Garbacz
Andrzej Garstecki
Wojciech Gilewski
Marian Giżejowski
Oleg Kapliński
Piotr Konderla
Aleksander Kozłowski
Marian Kwietniewski
Zbigniew Młynarek
Andrzej S. Nowak (USA)
Anna Siemińska-Lewandowska
Jan Szwabowski
Waldemar Świdziński
Andrew P. Tarko (USA)
Marian Tracz
Edmundas K. Zavadskas (Lithuania)
Jerzy Ziółko

Katarzyna Orzeł



Politechnika Warszawska

Wydział Inżynierii Lądowej

Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warszawa, Polska Pokój 618; Telefon 22 234 62 84






Instructions for authors


1. Preparation of the paper

General: Author is responsible for the Paper contents including copyrights and text formatting. The manuscript should be written in English. It should be typed using 12 p TNR font with 1.5 line spacing, on single-sided A4 sheets with 2 cm margins. The paper should not exceed 10 pages including tables and figures plus 2 pages of an extended summary (TNR 10 pt. justify align), started from new page at the end of the manuscript. Summary in Polish for Polish natives only, others - summary in English.

The first page and the main text: The first page of the article should contain: (1) the title of the article, (2) the name, academic merits, affiliation and e-mail of each author, (3) the name and the address of the author to whom correspondence, proofs and reprints should be sent, (4) a summary of 50-150 words, (5) a list of key words (not to exceed 8). The main text should be divided into numbered (1, 2, etc.) and titled sections and, if needed, into subsections (1.1, 1.2, ... in Section 1, 2.1, 2.2, ... in Section 2, etc.). The abstract of 50-150 words is required on a separate sheet. Polish natives authors only are requested to enclose Polish translation of the abstract, others - abstract in English.

Tables and figures: Tables and figures should be inserted into the text (black-and-white figures and glossy photographs),numbered consecutively and titled. They should be referred to in the text as Fig. 1, Fig. 2, ..., Table 1, Table 2. A list of figures and tables captions (TNR 11 pt. left align, in Polish - for Polish natives only and in English) should be provided on separate sheet(s) at the end of the manuscript beforean extended summary. Colour figures will be accepted only if the colour is essential for the explanation.

Units and mathematical formulae: SI units and abbreviations are obligatory. Mathematical formulae should be typewritten and centred. The formulae referred to in the text are to be numbered consecutively in each Section, i.e. (1.1), (1.2), ... in Section 1, (2.1), (2.2), ... in Section 2, etc. The numbers should be placed in parentheses ( ) at the left margin. The formulae are to be referred to in the text as Eq. (1.1),, Eq. (1.2), ..., Eq. (2.1), Eq. (2.2), ..., etc. The formulae not referred to in the text should not be numbered.

Bibliography: References are to be listed at the end of the paper in the alphabetical order and consecutively numbered. A reference to a published paper should be referred to in the text by the last name(s) of author(s) and the reference's number in brackets [ ]. Each item should contain full bibliographical data in the format illustrated by the following examples:

[1] M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Eds. Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Applied Mathematics Series 55). Washington, DC: NBS, 1964, pp. 32-33.

[2] M. Gorkii, “Optimal design”, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, vol. 12, pp. 111-122, 1961.

(Transl.: in L. Pontryagin, Ed., The Mathematical Theory of Optimal Processes. New York: INTERSCIENCE, 1962, Ch. 2, sec. 3, pp. 127-135).

[3] B. Klaus and P. Horn, Robot Vision. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986.

[4] E. F. Moore, “Gedanken-experiments on sequential machines”, in Automata Studies

(Ann. of Mathematical Studies, no. 1), C. E. Shannon and J. McCarthy, Eds. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 1965, pp. 129-153.

[5] R. L. Myer, “Parametric oscillators and nonlinear materials”, in Nonlinear Optics, vol. 4, P. G. Harper and B. S. Wherret, Eds. San Francisco, CA: Academic, 1977, pp. 47-160.

[6] L. Stein, “Random patterns”, in Computers and You, J. S. Brake, Ed. New York: Wiley, 1994, pp. 55-70.

[7] Westinghouse Electric Corporation (Staff of Technology and Science, Aerospace Div.), Integrated Electronic Systems. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1970.

[8] G. O. Young, “Synthetic structure of industrial plastics”, in Plastics, vol. 3, Polymers of Hexadromicon, J. Peters, Ed., 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964, pp. 15-64.

In special cases, other formats related to codes, reports, dissertations, etc. will be accepted.

Layout of the text can be downloaded from ace website:

2. Submission of the paper

Two electronic versions of the manuscript (DOC and PDF file) and License to publish should be submitted and sent directly to the Editor-in-chief by e-mail to:

Signing license agreement is required.

3. Proof read: Proofs will be sent to the corresponding author to correct any typesetting errors. Alterations to the original manuscript at this stage will not be accepted. Corrected proofs page must be mailed to the Editorial Office as soon as possible.

4. Copyright: Submission of a paper to Archives of Civil Engineering implies that the material is an original and unpublished work, not under consideration for publication elsewhere. If permission for publication of any material is required, it should be obtained from appropriate sources by the author. The corresponding author is responsible for the other authors' approval of the paper publication.

5. Reprints: The corresponding author will receive ten reprints and PDF file of the published paper free of charge.

6. Other information: Apart from research papers, other articles such as review papers, brief notes, discussions and reports may be published in the journal. Monographic papers and state-of-the-art papers are accepted after prior approval of the Editor. Reports on important conferences held in Poland may also be published. Editor decides whether the paper fulfil all requirements i.e. formal and scientific. Editor nominates two reviewers, who shall forward reviews of the accepted publication.

The paper will be published in ACE provided that the reviews are positive. If reviewers have some comments authors have to correct the paper. Papers are subject to open discussion. All letters should be addressed to the Editorial Office and will be published together with the authors' response.

7. Fees: Submission of the paper is free of charge. Submitted papers are accepted for publication after a positive opinion of two independent reviewers. When publication accepted Author will be informed by email about article processing charge incl. amount and payment deadline. ACE is non for profit and all fees are calculated to cover operational costs only. Payment is required to the following bank account:


ul. Polna 50, 00-644 WARSAW

PKO IV Department in WARSAW

Number: PL 84 1240 1053 1111 0000 0500 5707

with annotation: "Author(s) name and surname, ACE"

This page uses 'cookies'. Learn more